Jv Mission CDA

Generic Medicine & Nutrition Awareness

Generic Medicine & Nutrition Awareness B. Pharma/ M.Pharma III Sem , B. Pharma/ M.Pharma IV Sem , B.Pharmacy VII Sem , B.Pharmacy VIII Sem

All Comments
    
    
Showing 31 Submission(s)
  • PRIYA KUMARI 295 Hrs 41 Min 38 Sec

    #priya kumari#202046#bpharma3rd sem #jvwu Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Most people who fall sick with COVID-19 will experience mild to moderate symptoms and recover without special treatment. However, some will become seriously ill and require medical attention. On 26 November, the WHOs Technical Advisory Group on SARS-CoV-2 Virus Evolution declared PANGO lineage B.1.1.529 a variant of concern and designated it with the Greek letter omicron.[1][2][3] Greek letters are used to identify variants of SARS-CoV-2. In South Africa. Since last week the COVID cases has increased steeply. The growth in cases is because of the new SARS-CoV-2 variant: B.1.1.529. The first case of this COVID Variant was found from a specimen on 9 November 2021 Omicron COVID Variant Symptoms: On 24 November 2021 (Wednesday) a new COVID Variant was identified in South Africa. The new COVID Variant is named Omicron, WHO or World Health Organization has designated the new COVID Variant as the Variant of concern. After knowing that a new variant of COVID has been identified, the whole world is not panicking about this. Through this article, you will get the detailed information about the Omicron COVID Variant‘s. We have taken all the details about this variant of concern from a trustable source like who. The Omicron variant is a variant of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. It was first reported to the World Health Organization from South Africa on 24 November 2021. On 26 November 2021, the WHO designated it as a variant of concern and named it "Omicron", the fifteenth letter in the Greek alphabet. When a virus is circulating widely and causing numerous infections, the likelihood of the virus mutating increases. The more opportunities a virus has to spread, the more opportunities it has to undergo changes. New variants like Omicron are a reminder that the COVID-19 pandemic is far from over. It is therefore essential that people get the vaccine when available to them and continue to follow existing advice on preventing the spread of the virus, including physical distancing, wearing masks, regular handwashing and keeping indoor areas well ventilated. It is also crucial that vaccines and other public health measures are accessible everywhere. Vaccine inequity leaves lower income countries – many of them in Africa – at the mercy of COVID-19. Well-supplied countries must urgently deliver the doses they promised. Early findings suggest that Omicron might be less severe than the Delta variant, but more data is needed and WHO warns that it should not be dismissed as “mild”. Studies are ongoing and this information will be updated as it becomes available. It is important to remember that all variants of COVID-19 can cause severe disease or death, including the Delta variant that is still dominant worldwide, which is why preventing the spread of the virus and reducing your risk of exposure to the virus is so important. The objective of this narrative review was to describe the available information on (1) the factors that contribute to farmers adoption of recommended management strategies; and (2) the influence of social referents and extension tools on farmers management decisions. Our focus was farmer behavior related to improving animal health, but where applicable, we have included a selection of findings on animal welfare to add relevant information from other contexts. Furthermore, the scope of this review was voluntary management-based prevention and control of endemic infectious livestock diseases (i.e., farmers decision-making in the absence of compulsive regulations) on commercial farms in economically developed countries. To meet the second objective, we discussed the main communication channels used to provide information and support farmers in adopting recommended management practices. Based on the evidence as it pertains to the delineated scope, we provide recommendations to policy-makers, industry representatives, researchers, veterinarians, and other stakeholders to facilitate the adoption of on-farm management practices and assist in the development and implementation of voluntary control programs for endemic infectious livestock diseases. SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL INFLUENCES Every farmer has their own unique combination of demographic factors (e.g., age, sex, education), personality, previous experiences, routines, and goals, as well as economic, cultural, and family influences (Wilson et al., 2015; Frössling and Nöremark, 2016). These individual characteristics contribute to farmers views about animal health, prevention and control strategies, and influence their decision-making (Figure 1). Not every management decision a farmer makes might appear logical from an outside perspective (Kristensen and Jakobsen, 2011a). An understanding of a farmers mindset and the specific factors that combine to influence that mindset is crucial for motivating them to change. The socio-psychological influences on farmers adoption of recommended management practices described in the first part of the review were considered the most relevant and were often derived from constructs described in the Health Belief Model or the Theory of Planned Behavior (Figure 1). It is particularly important to consider these factors when formulating voluntary prevention and control programs, and we have provided related recommendations (Table 1, Table 2, Table 3, Table 4). However, interventions to change farmer behavior must acknowledge that farmers are not a homogeneous group and cannot be convinced by relying only on educational arguments (Jansen et al., 2010b,c). Furthermore, farmers context (e.g., laws and regulations, market prices, or quality programs) can affect decision-making by inhibiting or facilitating the recommended management changes. Because of the influence of farmers internal logic and context on their decision-making, it is impossible to provide a “one-size-fits-all” solution (Kristensen and Jakobsen, 2011a). Problem Awareness and Perception of Responsibility. HOW IT SPREADS The virus can spread from an infected person’s mouth or nose in small liquid particles when they cough, sneeze, speak, sing or breathe. These particles range from larger respiratory droplets to smaller aerosols. You can be infected by breathing in the virus if you are near someone who has COVID-19, or by touching a contaminated surface and then your eyes, nose or mouth. The virus spreads more easily indoors and in crowded settings.

  • SEEMA YADAV 295 Hrs 48 Min 01 Sec

    #seema yadav#202142#bpharma3rdsem#jvwu On 26 November, the WHOs Technical Advisory Group on SARS-CoV-2 Virus Evolution declared PANGO lineage B.1.1.529 a variant of concern and designated it with the Greek letter omicron.[1][2][3] Greek letters are used to identify variants of SARS-CoV-2. In South Africa. Since last week the COVID cases has increased steeply. The growth in cases is because of the new SARS-CoV-2 variant: B.1.1.529. The first case of this COVID Variant was found from a specimen on 9 November 2021 Omicron COVID Variant Symptoms: On 24 November 2021 (Wednesday) a new COVID Variant was identified in South Africa. The new COVID Variant is named Omicron, WHO or World Health Organization has designated the new COVID Variant as the Variant of concern. After knowing that a new variant of COVID has been identified, the whole world is not panicking about this. Through this article, you will get the detailed information about the Omicron COVID Variant‘s. We have taken all the details about this variant of concern from a trustable source like who. The Omicron variant is a variant of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. It was first reported to the World Health Organization from South Africa on 24 November 2021. On 26 November 2021, the WHO designated it as a variant of concern and named it "Omicron", the fifteenth letter in the Greek alphabet. When a virus is circulating widely and causing numerous infections, the likelihood of the virus mutating increases. The more opportunities a virus has to spread, the more opportunities it has to undergo changes. New variants like Omicron are a reminder that the COVID-19 pandemic is far from over. It is therefore essential that people get the vaccine when available to them and continue to follow existing advice on preventing the spread of the virus, including physical distancing, wearing masks, regular handwashing and keeping indoor areas well ventilated. It is also crucial that vaccines and other public health measures are accessible everywhere. Vaccine inequity leaves lower income countries – many of them in Africa – at the mercy of COVID-19. Well-supplied countries must urgently deliver the doses they promised. Early findings suggest that Omicron might be less severe than the Delta variant, but more data is needed and WHO warns that it should not be dismissed as “mild”. Studies are ongoing and this information will be updated as it becomes available. It is important to remember that all variants of COVID-19 can cause severe disease or death, including the Delta variant that is still dominant worldwide, which is why preventing the spread of the virus and reducing your risk of exposure to the virus is so important.Omicron is spreading more quickly than other variants. Based on the information available, WHO believes it is likely that Omicron will outpace the Delta variant where there is COVID-19 transmission in the community. However, being vaccinated and taking precautions such as avoiding crowded spaces, keeping your distance from others and wearing a mask are critical in helping to prevent the spread of COVID-19, and we know these actions have been effective against other variants. WHO reports that early evidence suggests that previous infection could offer less protection against Omicron in comparison to other variants of concern, such as Delta. Information is still limited though and we will share updates as it becomes available. You should get vaccinated even if you’ve previously had COVID-19. While people who recover from COVID-19 may develop some natural immunity to the virus, we do not yet know how long it lasts or how well you are protected. Vaccines offer more reliable protection. The most important thing you can do is reduce your risk of exposure to the virus. To protect yourself and your loved ones, make sure to: Wear a mask that covers your nose and mouth. Make sure that your hands are clean when you put on and remove your mask. Keep a physical distance of at least 1 metre from others. Avoid poorly ventilated or crowded spaces. Open windows to improve ventilation indoors. Wash your hands regularly. When it’s your turn, get vaccinated. WHO-approved COVID-19 vaccines are safe and effective.

  • SEEMA YADAV 295 Hrs 49 Min 53 Sec

    #seema yadav#202142#bpharma3rdsem#jvwu On 26 November, the WHOs Technical Advisory Group on SARS-CoV-2 Virus Evolution declared PANGO lineage B.1.1.529 a variant of concern and designated it with the Greek letter omicron.[1][2][3] Greek letters are used to identify variants of SARS-CoV-2. In South Africa. Since last week the COVID cases has increased steeply. The growth in cases is because of the new SARS-CoV-2 variant: B.1.1.529. The first case of this COVID Variant was found from a specimen on 9 November 2021 Omicron COVID Variant Symptoms: On 24 November 2021 (Wednesday) a new COVID Variant was identified in South Africa. The new COVID Variant is named Omicron, WHO or World Health Organization has designated the new COVID Variant as the Variant of concern. After knowing that a new variant of COVID has been identified, the whole world is not panicking about this. Through this article, you will get the detailed information about the Omicron COVID Variant‘s. We have taken all the details about this variant of concern from a trustable source like who. The Omicron variant is a variant of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. It was first reported to the World Health Organization from South Africa on 24 November 2021. On 26 November 2021, the WHO designated it as a variant of concern and named it "Omicron", the fifteenth letter in the Greek alphabet. When a virus is circulating widely and causing numerous infections, the likelihood of the virus mutating increases. The more opportunities a virus has to spread, the more opportunities it has to undergo changes. New variants like Omicron are a reminder that the COVID-19 pandemic is far from over. It is therefore essential that people get the vaccine when available to them and continue to follow existing advice on preventing the spread of the virus, including physical distancing, wearing masks, regular handwashing and keeping indoor areas well ventilated. It is also crucial that vaccines and other public health measures are accessible everywhere. Vaccine inequity leaves lower income countries – many of them in Africa – at the mercy of COVID-19. Well-supplied countries must urgently deliver the doses they promised. Early findings suggest that Omicron might be less severe than the Delta variant, but more data is needed and WHO warns that it should not be dismissed as “mild”. Studies are ongoing and this information will be updated as it becomes available. It is important to remember that all variants of COVID-19 can cause severe disease or death, including the Delta variant that is still dominant worldwide, which is why preventing the spread of the virus and reducing your risk of exposure to the virus is so important.

  • ANANYA ANAND 295 Hrs 57 Min 02 Sec

    #ananya anand# 202326#bpharma 3rd sem#jvwu The Omicron variant is a variant of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. It was first reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) from South Africa on 24 November 2021. On 26 November 2021, the WHO designated it as a variant of concern and named it "Omicron", the fifteenth letter in the Greek alphabet. he term variant of concern (VOC) for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19) is a category used for variants of the virus where mutations in their spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD) substantially increase binding affinity (e.g., N501Y) in RBD-hACE2 complex (genetic data), while also being linked to rapid spread in human populations (epidemiological data). Last week, after the World Health Organization (WHO) named the Omicron variant as a Variant of Concern, the President took immediate steps to restrict travel from the most impacted countries in order to give the U.S. time to learn more about the variant and prepare. We have more tools today to fight the Omicron variant than we have had to fight previous variants, including Delta. Nearly 60 percent of Americans are fully vaccinated, booster shots are authorized for all adults, and a vaccine is authorized for kids aged 5 and older. The U.S. is leading the world in vaccinating children, and millions of Americans have already gotten their boosters. And, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is reviewing additional antiviral treatments for when people do get sick. 1. Boosters for All Adults 2. Expanding pharmacy availability through December and reaching out to all eligible customers to get their booster 3.Launching a new public education campaign to encourage adults to get boosters, with a special focus on seniors 4.Collaborating with AARP on an education campaign focused on getting seniors boosted 5.Targeting outreach to Medicare beneficiaries 6. Calling on employers to follow the federal government’s lead and provide paid time off to their employees to get boosted Primary care: The vaccination ramp up is the current priority for primary care, supported by the additional funding already announced and changes to GP contract arrangements. Omicron is believed to be far more contagious (spreading much quicker),[8] to spread around 70 times faster than any previous variants in the bronchi (lung airways), but to be less able to penetrate deep lung tissue, leading scientists to consider this reason as the cause of reduction in the risk of severe disease requiring hospitalisation, when compared to previously identified variants of concern.[9] However, the extremely high rate of spread, combined with its ability to evade both double vaccination and the bodys immune system, means the total number of patients requiring hospital care at any given time is still of great concern. For our analysis, we took the health reports from UK contributors reporting positive cases in the ZOE COVID Study app in December 2022 as Omicron became dominant and compared them with data from early October when Delta was the dominant variant. We also confirmed these findings by analyzing data from a small group of contributors who had been told by the Government that their positive PCR results were suspected or confirmed Omicron infections. The top 5 symptoms in both periods were: Runny nose Headache Fatigue (mild or severe) Sneezing Sore throat Most common symptoms Most common symptoms for the new COVID Variant “Omicron” are fever, cough, tiredness, loss of taste or smell. Less common symptoms Less common symptoms for the new COVID Variant “Omicron” are sore throat, headache, aches, pains, diarrhoea, a rash on skin, discolouration of fingers or toes red or irritated eyes. Serious symptoms Serious symptoms for the new COVID Variant “Omicron” are difficulty breathing or shortness of breath, loss of speech or mobility, or confusion or chest pain. After the detection of a new variant of COVID, the WHO has advised the country and every individual to follow the SOPs (Standard Operating Protocols). The WHO has published the advice on it’s official website @who.int for countries and individuals. In an article that was published on 28 November 2021 on who.int, it is mentioned that “It is not yet clear whether Omicron is more transmissible (e.g., more easily spread from person to person) compared to other variants.” It may be more transmissible, studies are ongoing, in order to get transmissible details. In the same article, WHO has said even this “It is not yet clear whether infection with Omicron causes more severe disease compared to infections with other variants, including Delta” We hope that after reading this article you have gotten the in-depth information about the Omicron COVID Variant. Even after reading this article if you any questions or queries related to Omicron COVID Variant, then ask it by commenting below, we will try to answer all your questions or queries as soon as possible.

  • ANANYA ANAND 295 Hrs 59 Min 14 Sec

    The Omicron variant is a variant of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. It was first reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) from South Africa on 24 November 2021. On 26 November 2021, the WHO designated it as a variant of concern and named it "Omicron", the fifteenth letter in the Greek alphabet. he term variant of concern (VOC) for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19) is a category used for variants of the virus where mutations in their spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD) substantially increase binding affinity (e.g., N501Y) in RBD-hACE2 complex (genetic data), while also being linked to rapid spread in human populations (epidemiological data). Last week, after the World Health Organization (WHO) named the Omicron variant as a Variant of Concern, the President took immediate steps to restrict travel from the most impacted countries in order to give the U.S. time to learn more about the variant and prepare. We have more tools today to fight the Omicron variant than we have had to fight previous variants, including Delta. Nearly 60 percent of Americans are fully vaccinated, booster shots are authorized for all adults, and a vaccine is authorized for kids aged 5 and older. The U.S. is leading the world in vaccinating children, and millions of Americans have already gotten their boosters. And, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is reviewing additional antiviral treatments for when people do get sick. 1. Boosters for All Adults 2. Expanding pharmacy availability through December and reaching out to all eligible customers to get their booster 3.Launching a new public education campaign to encourage adults to get boosters, with a special focus on seniors 4.Collaborating with AARP on an education campaign focused on getting seniors boosted 5.Targeting outreach to Medicare beneficiaries 6. Calling on employers to follow the federal government’s lead and provide paid time off to their employees to get boosted Primary care: The vaccination ramp up is the current priority for primary care, supported by the additional funding already announced and changes to GP contract arrangements. Continued access to general practice remains essential for those who need care and the £250 million Winter Access Fund remains available through systems to support general practice capacity more generally, including through the use of locums and support from other health professionals. Omicron is believed to be far more contagious (spreading much quicker),[8] to spread around 70 times faster than any previous variants in the bronchi (lung airways), but to be less able to penetrate deep lung tissue, leading scientists to consider this reason as the cause of reduction in the risk of severe disease requiring hospitalisation, when compared to previously identified variants of concern.[9] However, the extremely high rate of spread, combined with its ability to evade both double vaccination and the bodys immune system, means the total number of patients requiring hospital care at any given time is still of great concern. For our analysis, we took the health reports from UK contributors reporting positive cases in the ZOE COVID Study app in December 2022 as Omicron became dominant and compared them with data from early October when Delta was the dominant variant. We also confirmed these findings by analyzing data from a small group of contributors who had been told by the Government that their positive PCR results were suspected or confirmed Omicron infections. The top 5 symptoms in both periods were: Runny nose Headache Fatigue (mild or severe) Sneezing Sore throat Most common symptoms Most common symptoms for the new COVID Variant “Omicron” are fever, cough, tiredness, loss of taste or smell. Less common symptoms Less common symptoms for the new COVID Variant “Omicron” are sore throat, headache, aches, pains, diarrhoea, a rash on skin, discolouration of fingers or toes red or irritated eyes. Serious symptoms Serious symptoms for the new COVID Variant “Omicron” are difficulty breathing or shortness of breath, loss of speech or mobility, or confusion or chest pain. After the detection of a new variant of COVID, the WHO has advised the country and every individual to follow the SOPs (Standard Operating Protocols). The WHO has published the advice on it’s official website @who.int for countries and individuals. In an article that was published on 28 November 2021 on who.int, it is mentioned that “It is not yet clear whether Omicron is more transmissible (e.g., more easily spread from person to person) compared to other variants.” It may be more transmissible, studies are ongoing, in order to get transmissible details. In the same article, WHO has said even this “It is not yet clear whether infection with Omicron causes more severe disease compared to infections with other variants, including Delta” We hope that after reading this article you have gotten the in-depth information about the Omicron COVID Variant. Even after reading this article if you any questions or queries related to Omicron COVID Variant, then ask it by commenting below, we will try to answer all your questions or queries as soon as possible.

  • MS.KHUSHI CHOUDHARY 297 Hrs 02 Min 32 Sec

    # kushi # jv-u /18/2625 # 7th sem # jvwu#bpharm The Omicron variant of COVID-19 has been called a variant of concern by WHO based on the evidence that it has several mutations that may have an impact on how it behaves. There is still substantial uncertainty regarding Omicron and a lot of research underway to evaluate its transmissibility, severity and reinfection risk. When a virus is circulating widely and causing numerous infections, the likelihood of the virus mutating increases. The more opportunities a virus has to spread, the more opportunities it has to undergo changes. New variants like Omicron are a reminder that the COVID-19 pandemic is far from over. It is therefore essential that people get the vaccine when available to them and continue to follow existing advice on preventing the spread of the virus, including physical distancing, wearing masks, regular handwashing and keeping indoor areas well ventilated. It is also crucial that vaccines and other public health measures are accessible everywhere. Vaccine inequity leaves lower income countries – many of them in Africa – at the mercy of COVID-19. Well-supplied countries must urgently deliver the doses they promised. The Omicron variant has now been detected in many countries around the world. WHO reports that Omicron is probably in most countries, even if it hasn’t been detected yet. Early findings suggest that Omicron might be less severe than the Delta variant, but more data is needed and WHO warns that it should not be dismissed as “mild”. Studies are ongoing and this information will be updated as it becomes available. It is important to remember that all variants of COVID-19 can cause severe disease or death, including the Delta variant that is still dominant worldwide, which is why preventing the spread of the virus and reducing your risk of exposure to the virus is so important.Omicron is spreading more quickly than other variants. Based on the information available, WHO believes it is likely that Omicron will outpace the Delta variant where there is COVID-19 transmission in the community. However, being vaccinated and taking precautions such as avoiding crowded spaces, keeping your distance from others and wearing a mask are critical in helping to prevent the spread of COVID-19, and we know these actions have been effective against other variants. Researchers are looking into any potential impact the Omicron variant has on the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines. Information is still limited, but there may be a small reduction in the effectiveness of vaccines against severe illness and death, and a decline in preventing mild disease and infection. However, WHO reports that so far it looks like the currently available vaccines offer significant protection against severe disease and death. It is also important to be vaccinated to protect against the other widely circulating variants, such as the Delta one. When it’s your turn, make sure to get vaccinated. If your vaccination involves two doses, it’s important to receive both in order to have the maximum protection.With seven countries in South-East Asia Region confirming cases of the new COVID-19 variant Omicron, the World Health Organization today emphasized on urgent scale up of public health and social measures to curtail its further spread. “Countries can – and must – prevent the spread of Omicron with the proven health and social measures. Our focus must continue to be to protect the least protected and those at high risk,” said Dr Poonam Khetrapal Singh, Regional Director, WHO South-East Asia Region. The overall threat posed by Omicron largely depends on three key questions – its transmissibility; how well the vaccines and prior SARS-CoV-2 infection protect against it, and how virulent the variant is as compared to other variants. From what we know so far, Omicron appears to spread faster than the Delta variant which has been attributed to the surge in cases across the world in the last several months, the Regional Director said. Emerging data from South Africa suggests increased risk of re-infection with Omicron, she said, adding that there is still limited data on the clinical severity associated with Omicron. Further information is needed to fully understand the clinical picture of those infected with Omicron. We expect more information in the coming weeks. Omicron should not be dismissed as mild, the Regional Director said, adding that even if it does cause less severe disease, the sheer number of cases could once again overwhelm health systems. Hence, health care capacity including ICU beds, oxygen availability, adequate health care staff and surge capacity need to be reviewed and strengthened at all levels. “We must continue to do it all. Protect yourself and protect each other. Get vaccinated, wear a mask, keep a distance, open windows, clean your hands and cough and sneeze safely. Continue to take all precautions even after taking vaccine doses,” the Regional Director said. On the impact of the new variant on vaccines, Dr Khetrapal Singh said preliminary data suggests that that vaccines may likely have reduced effectiveness against infections by the Omicron variant. However, studies are underway to better understand the extent to which Omicron may evade vaccine and/or infection derived immunity and the extent to which current vaccines continue to protect against severe disease and death associated with Omicron. Globally, the pandemic is driven by the Delta variant, against which the vaccines continue to provide a robust level of protection from severe disease, hospitalization, and death. Hence, our efforts to scale-up vaccination coverage must continue.Omicron should not be dismissed as mild, the Regional Director said, adding that even if it does cause less severe disease, the sheer number of cases could once again overwhelm health systems. Patient Access Connect), which provides an integrated triage tool and automated referral to any participating pharmacy. It is already seeing huge success. Between June and September 2021, around 2,500 patients were successfully referred for a personal consultation with a community pharmacist of their choice.For Ed Garvey, who is part of the CCG’s primary care team, having the option to assess a patient referral using a clinically-designed assessment tool means that “receptionists and practice teams have the added confidence that they can refer to this tool when they need some reassurance.”GP Dr Jeremy Imms has remarked on the “huge cost saving to the practice, as each referral is saving a clinician’s appointment. By broadening access to the wider primary care, patients are getting a better service and we are taking a little bit of pressure out of GP surgeries.” For Michael Lennox, a community pharmacist in Somerset, the CPCS service is “beginning to make a discernible difference in channel shift. We are convinced that our partnership-working philosophy has enabled us to achieve at-pace and best-in-class practical delivery.” Implementing the CPCSPractices can start referring into the CPCS straight away, as soon as the secure electronic referral process has been agreed with local community pharmacies. There is lots of support available through your local implementation lead or on FutureNHS. EMIS practices wishing to use local services can contact their local EMIS team

  • Riya Chouhan 297 Hrs 03 Min 59 Sec

    #Riya chauhan # jv-u/18/2056 # 7th sem # jvwu#The Omicron variant of COVID-19 has been called a variant of concern by WHO based on the evidence that it has several mutations that may have an impact on how it behaves. There is still substantial uncertainty regarding Omicron and a lot of research underway to evaluate its transmissibility, severity and reinfection risk. When a virus is circulating widely and causing numerous infections, the likelihood of the virus mutating increases. The more opportunities a virus has to spread, the more opportunities it has to undergo changes. New variants like Omicron are a reminder that the COVID-19 pandemic is far from over. It is therefore essential that people get the vaccine when available to them and continue to follow existing advice on preventing the spread of the virus, including physical distancing, wearing masks, regular handwashing and keeping indoor areas well ventilated. It is also crucial that vaccines and other public health measures are accessible everywhere. Vaccine inequity leaves lower income countries – many of them in Africa – at the mercy of COVID-19. Well-supplied countries must urgently deliver the doses they promised. The Omicron variant has now been detected in many countries around the world. WHO reports that Omicron is probably in most countries, even if it hasn’t been detected yet. Early findings suggest that Omicron might be less severe than the Delta variant, but more data is needed and WHO warns that it should not be dismissed as “mild”. Studies are ongoing and this information will be updated as it becomes available. It is important to remember that all variants of COVID-19 can cause severe disease or death, including the Delta variant that is still dominant worldwide, which is why preventing the spread of the virus and reducing your risk of exposure to the virus is so important.Omicron is spreading more quickly than other variants. Based on the information available, WHO believes it is likely that Omicron will outpace the Delta variant where there is COVID-19 transmission in the community. However, being vaccinated and taking precautions such as avoiding crowded spaces, keeping your distance from others and wearing a mask are critical in helping to prevent the spread of COVID-19, and we know these actions have been effective against other variants. Researchers are looking into any potential impact the Omicron variant has on the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines. Information is still limited, but there may be a small reduction in the effectiveness of vaccines against severe illness and death, and a decline in preventing mild disease and infection. However, WHO reports that so far it looks like the currently available vaccines offer significant protection against severe disease and death. It is also important to be vaccinated to protect against the other widely circulating variants, such as the Delta one. When it’s your turn, make sure to get vaccinated. If your vaccination involves two doses, it’s important to receive both in order to have the maximum protection.With seven countries in South-East Asia Region confirming cases of the new COVID-19 variant Omicron, the World Health Organization today emphasized on urgent scale up of public health and social measures to curtail its further spread. “Countries can – and must – prevent the spread of Omicron with the proven health and social measures. Our focus must continue to be to protect the least protected and those at high risk,” said Dr Poonam Khetrapal Singh, Regional Director, WHO South-East Asia Region. The overall threat posed by Omicron largely depends on three key questions – its transmissibility; how well the vaccines and prior SARS-CoV-2 infection protect against it, and how virulent the variant is as compared to other variants. From what we know so far, Omicron appears to spread faster than the Delta variant which has been attributed to the surge in cases across the world in the last several months, the Regional Director said. Emerging data from South Africa suggests increased risk of re-infection with Omicron, she said, adding that there is still limited data on the clinical severity associated with Omicron. Further information is needed to fully understand the clinical picture of those infected with Omicron. We expect more information in the coming weeks. Omicron should not be dismissed as mild, the Regional Director said, adding that even if it does cause less severe disease, the sheer number of cases could once again overwhelm health systems. Hence, health care capacity including ICU beds, oxygen availability, adequate health care staff and surge capacity need to be reviewed and strengthened at all levels. “We must continue to do it all. Protect yourself and protect each other. Get vaccinated, wear a mask, keep a distance, open windows, clean your hands and cough and sneeze safely. Continue to take all precautions even after taking vaccine doses,” the Regional Director said. On the impact of the new variant on vaccines, Dr Khetrapal Singh said preliminary data suggests that that vaccines may likely have reduced effectiveness against infections by the Omicron variant. However, studies are underway to better understand the extent to which Omicron may evade vaccine and/or infection derived immunity and the extent to which current vaccines continue to protect against severe disease and death associated with Omicron. Globally, the pandemic is driven by the Delta variant, against which the vaccines continue to provide a robust level of protection from severe disease, hospitalization, and death. Hence, our efforts to scale-up vaccination coverage must continue.Omicron should not be dismissed as mild, the Regional Director said, adding that even if it does cause less severe disease, the sheer number of cases could once again overwhelm health systems. Patient Access Connect), which provides an integrated triage tool and automated referral to any participating pharmacy. It is already seeing huge success. Between June and September 2021, around 2,500 patients were successfully referred for a personal consultation with a community pharmacist of their choice.For Ed Garvey, who is part of the CCG’s primary care team, having the option to assess a patient referral using a clinically-designed assessment tool means that “receptionists and practice teams have the added confidence that they can refer to this tool when they need some reassurance.”GP Dr Jeremy Imms has remarked on the “huge cost saving to the practice, as each referral is saving a clinician’s appointment. By broadening access to the wider primary care, patients are getting a better service and we are taking a little bit of pressure out of GP surgeries.” For Michael Lennox, a community pharmacist in Somerset, the CPCS service is “beginning to make a discernible difference in channel shift. We are convinced that our partnership-working philosophy has enabled us to achieve at-pace and best-in-class practical delivery.” Implementing the CPCSPractices can start referring into the CPCS straight away, as soon as the secure electronic referral process has been agreed with local community pharmacies. There is lots of support available through your local implementation lead or on FutureNHS. EMIS practices wishing to use local services can contact their local EMIS team

  • KAJAL ROY 297 Hrs 16 Min 58 Sec

    #kajal #jv-u/19/3050#bpharm #5th sem #jvwuThe Omicron variant of COVID-19 has been called a variant of concern by WHO based on the evidence that it has several mutations that may have an impact on how it behaves. There is still substantial uncertainty regarding Omicron and a lot of research underway to evaluate its transmissibility, severity and reinfection risk. When a virus is circulating widely and causing numerous infections, the likelihood of the virus mutating increases. The more opportunities a virus has to spread, the more opportunities it has to undergo changes. New variants like Omicron are a reminder that the COVID-19 pandemic is far from over. It is therefore essential that people get the vaccine when available to them and continue to follow existing advice on preventing the spread of the virus, including physical distancing, wearing masks, regular handwashing and keeping indoor areas well ventilated. It is also crucial that vaccines and other public health measures are accessible everywhere. Vaccine inequity leaves lower income countries – many of them in Africa – at the mercy of COVID-19. Well-supplied countries must urgently deliver the doses they promised. The Omicron variant has now been detected in many countries around the world. WHO reports that Omicron is probably in most countries, even if it hasn’t been detected yet. Early findings suggest that Omicron might be less severe than the Delta variant, but more data is needed and WHO warns that it should not be dismissed as “mild”. Studies are ongoing and this information will be updated as it becomes available. It is important to remember that all variants of COVID-19 can cause severe disease or death, including the Delta variant that is still dominant worldwide, which is why preventing the spread of the virus and reducing your risk of exposure to the virus is so important.Omicron is spreading more quickly than other variants. Based on the information available, WHO believes it is likely that Omicron will outpace the Delta variant where there is COVID-19 transmission in the community. However, being vaccinated and taking precautions such as avoiding crowded spaces, keeping your distance from others and wearing a mask are critical in helping to prevent the spread of COVID-19, and we know these actions have been effective against other variants. Researchers are looking into any potential impact the Omicron variant has on the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines. Information is still limited, but there may be a small reduction in the effectiveness of vaccines against severe illness and death, and a decline in preventing mild disease and infection. However, WHO reports that so far it looks like the currently available vaccines offer significant protection against severe disease and death. It is also important to be vaccinated to protect against the other widely circulating variants, such as the Delta one. When it’s your turn, make sure to get vaccinated. If your vaccination involves two doses, it’s important to receive both in order to have the maximum protection.With seven countries in South-East Asia Region confirming cases of the new COVID-19 variant Omicron, the World Health Organization today emphasized on urgent scale up of public health and social measures to curtail its further spread. “Countries can – and must – prevent the spread of Omicron with the proven health and social measures. Our focus must continue to be to protect the least protected and those at high risk,” said Dr Poonam Khetrapal Singh, Regional Director, WHO South-East Asia Region. The overall threat posed by Omicron largely depends on three key questions – its transmissibility; how well the vaccines and prior SARS-CoV-2 infection protect against it, and how virulent the variant is as compared to other variants. From what we know so far, Omicron appears to spread faster than the Delta variant which has been attributed to the surge in cases across the world in the last several months, the Regional Director said. Emerging data from South Africa suggests increased risk of re-infection with Omicron, she said, adding that there is still limited data on the clinical severity associated with Omicron. Further information is needed to fully understand the clinical picture of those infected with Omicron. We expect more information in the coming weeks. Omicron should not be dismissed as mild, the Regional Director said, adding that even if it does cause less severe disease, the sheer number of cases could once again overwhelm health systems. Hence, health care capacity including ICU beds, oxygen availability, adequate health care staff and surge capacity need to be reviewed and strengthened at all levels. “We must continue to do it all. Protect yourself and protect each other. Get vaccinated, wear a mask, keep a distance, open windows, clean your hands and cough and sneeze safely. Continue to take all precautions even after taking vaccine doses,” the Regional Director said. On the impact of the new variant on vaccines, Dr Khetrapal Singh said preliminary data suggests that that vaccines may likely have reduced effectiveness against infections by the Omicron variant. However, studies are underway to better understand the extent to which Omicron may evade vaccine and/or infection derived immunity and the extent to which current vaccines continue to protect against severe disease and death associated with Omicron. Globally, the pandemic is driven by the Delta variant, against which the vaccines continue to provide a robust level of protection from severe disease, hospitalization, and death. Hence, our efforts to scale-up vaccination coverage must continue.Omicron should not be dismissed as mild, the Regional Director said, adding that even if it does cause less severe disease, the sheer number of cases could once again overwhelm health systems. Patient Access Connect), which provides an integrated triage tool and automated referral to any participating pharmacy. It is already seeing huge success. Between June and September 2021, around 2,500 patients were successfully referred for a personal consultation with a community pharmacist of their choice.For Ed Garvey, who is part of the CCG’s primary care team, having the option to assess a patient referral using a clinically-designed assessment tool means that “receptionists and practice teams have the added confidence that they can refer to this tool when they need some reassurance.”GP Dr Jeremy Imms has remarked on the “huge cost saving to the practice, as each referral is saving a clinician’s appointment. By broadening access to the wider primary care, patients are getting a better service and we are taking a little bit of pressure out of GP surgeries.” For Michael Lennox, a community pharmacist in Somerset, the CPCS service is “beginning to make a discernible difference in channel shift. We are convinced that our partnership-working philosophy has enabled us to achieve at-pace and best-in-class practical delivery.” Implementing the CPCSPractices can start referring into the CPCS straight away, as soon as the secure electronic referral process has been agreed with local community pharmacies. There is lots of support available through your local implementation lead or on FutureNHS. EMIS practices wishing to use local services can contact their local EMIS team

  • RADHIKA GOYAL 297 Hrs 18 Min 17 Sec

    #radhika #jv-u/19/3061#bpharm #5th sem #jvwuThe Omicron variant of COVID-19 has been called a variant of concern by WHO based on the evidence that it has several mutations that may have an impact on how it behaves. There is still substantial uncertainty regarding Omicron and a lot of research underway to evaluate its transmissibility, severity and reinfection risk. When a virus is circulating widely and causing numerous infections, the likelihood of the virus mutating increases. The more opportunities a virus has to spread, the more opportunities it has to undergo changes. New variants like Omicron are a reminder that the COVID-19 pandemic is far from over. It is therefore essential that people get the vaccine when available to them and continue to follow existing advice on preventing the spread of the virus, including physical distancing, wearing masks, regular handwashing and keeping indoor areas well ventilated. It is also crucial that vaccines and other public health measures are accessible everywhere. Vaccine inequity leaves lower income countries – many of them in Africa – at the mercy of COVID-19. Well-supplied countries must urgently deliver the doses they promised. The Omicron variant has now been detected in many countries around the world. WHO reports that Omicron is probably in most countries, even if it hasn’t been detected yet. Early findings suggest that Omicron might be less severe than the Delta variant, but more data is needed and WHO warns that it should not be dismissed as “mild”. Studies are ongoing and this information will be updated as it becomes available. It is important to remember that all variants of COVID-19 can cause severe disease or death, including the Delta variant that is still dominant worldwide, which is why preventing the spread of the virus and reducing your risk of exposure to the virus is so important.Omicron is spreading more quickly than other variants. Based on the information available, WHO believes it is likely that Omicron will outpace the Delta variant where there is COVID-19 transmission in the community. However, being vaccinated and taking precautions such as avoiding crowded spaces, keeping your distance from others and wearing a mask are critical in helping to prevent the spread of COVID-19, and we know these actions have been effective against other variants. Researchers are looking into any potential impact the Omicron variant has on the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines. Information is still limited, but there may be a small reduction in the effectiveness of vaccines against severe illness and death, and a decline in preventing mild disease and infection. However, WHO reports that so far it looks like the currently available vaccines offer significant protection against severe disease and death. It is also important to be vaccinated to protect against the other widely circulating variants, such as the Delta one. When it’s your turn, make sure to get vaccinated. If your vaccination involves two doses, it’s important to receive both in order to have the maximum protection.With seven countries in South-East Asia Region confirming cases of the new COVID-19 variant Omicron, the World Health Organization today emphasized on urgent scale up of public health and social measures to curtail its further spread. “Countries can – and must – prevent the spread of Omicron with the proven health and social measures. Our focus must continue to be to protect the least protected and those at high risk,” said Dr Poonam Khetrapal Singh, Regional Director, WHO South-East Asia Region. The overall threat posed by Omicron largely depends on three key questions – its transmissibility; how well the vaccines and prior SARS-CoV-2 infection protect against it, and how virulent the variant is as compared to other variants. From what we know so far, Omicron appears to spread faster than the Delta variant which has been attributed to the surge in cases across the world in the last several months, the Regional Director said. Emerging data from South Africa suggests increased risk of re-infection with Omicron, she said, adding that there is still limited data on the clinical severity associated with Omicron. Further information is needed to fully understand the clinical picture of those infected with Omicron. We expect more information in the coming weeks. Omicron should not be dismissed as mild, the Regional Director said, adding that even if it does cause less severe disease, the sheer number of cases could once again overwhelm health systems. Hence, health care capacity including ICU beds, oxygen availability, adequate health care staff and surge capacity need to be reviewed and strengthened at all levels. “We must continue to do it all. Protect yourself and protect each other. Get vaccinated, wear a mask, keep a distance, open windows, clean your hands and cough and sneeze safely. Continue to take all precautions even after taking vaccine doses,” the Regional Director said. On the impact of the new variant on vaccines, Dr Khetrapal Singh said preliminary data suggests that that vaccines may likely have reduced effectiveness against infections by the Omicron variant. However, studies are underway to better understand the extent to which Omicron may evade vaccine and/or infection derived immunity and the extent to which current vaccines continue to protect against severe disease and death associated with Omicron. Globally, the pandemic is driven by the Delta variant, against which the vaccines continue to provide a robust level of protection from severe disease, hospitalization, and death. Hence, our efforts to scale-up vaccination coverage must continue.Omicron should not be dismissed as mild, the Regional Director said, adding that even if it does cause less severe disease, the sheer number of cases could once again overwhelm health systems. Patient Access Connect), which provides an integrated triage tool and automated referral to any participating pharmacy. It is already seeing huge success. Between June and September 2021, around 2,500 patients were successfully referred for a personal consultation with a community pharmacist of their choice.For Ed Garvey, who is part of the CCG’s primary care team, having the option to assess a patient referral using a clinically-designed assessment tool means that “receptionists and practice teams have the added confidence that they can refer to this tool when they need some reassurance.”GP Dr Jeremy Imms has remarked on the “huge cost saving to the practice, as each referral is saving a clinician’s appointment. By broadening access to the wider primary care, patients are getting a better service and we are taking a little bit of pressure out of GP surgeries.” For Michael Lennox, a community pharmacist in Somerset, the CPCS service is “beginning to make a discernible difference in channel shift. We are convinced that our partnership-working philosophy has enabled us to achieve at-pace and best-in-class practical delivery.” Implementing the CPCSPractices can start referring into the CPCS straight away, as soon as the secure electronic referral process has been agreed with local community pharmacies. There is lots of support available through your local implementation lead or on FutureNHS. EMIS practices wishing to use local services can contact their local EMIS team

  • MS.HIMANI KUMAWAT 297 Hrs 20 Min 00 Sec

    #himani kumawat #jv-u/18/2615#bpharm #7th sem #jvwuThe Omicron variant of COVID-19 has been called a variant of concern by WHO based on the evidence that it has several mutations that may have an impact on how it behaves. There is still substantial uncertainty regarding Omicron and a lot of research underway to evaluate its transmissibility, severity and reinfection risk. When a virus is circulating widely and causing numerous infections, the likelihood of the virus mutating increases. The more opportunities a virus has to spread, the more opportunities it has to undergo changes. New variants like Omicron are a reminder that the COVID-19 pandemic is far from over. It is therefore essential that people get the vaccine when available to them and continue to follow existing advice on preventing the spread of the virus, including physical distancing, wearing masks, regular handwashing and keeping indoor areas well ventilated. It is also crucial that vaccines and other public health measures are accessible everywhere. Vaccine inequity leaves lower income countries – many of them in Africa – at the mercy of COVID-19. Well-supplied countries must urgently deliver the doses they promised. The Omicron variant has now been detected in many countries around the world. WHO reports that Omicron is probably in most countries, even if it hasn’t been detected yet. Early findings suggest that Omicron might be less severe than the Delta variant, but more data is needed and WHO warns that it should not be dismissed as “mild”. Studies are ongoing and this information will be updated as it becomes available. It is important to remember that all variants of COVID-19 can cause severe disease or death, including the Delta variant that is still dominant worldwide, which is why preventing the spread of the virus and reducing your risk of exposure to the virus is so important.Omicron is spreading more quickly than other variants. Based on the information available, WHO believes it is likely that Omicron will outpace the Delta variant where there is COVID-19 transmission in the community. However, being vaccinated and taking precautions such as avoiding crowded spaces, keeping your distance from others and wearing a mask are critical in helping to prevent the spread of COVID-19, and we know these actions have been effective against other variants. Researchers are looking into any potential impact the Omicron variant has on the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines. Information is still limited, but there may be a small reduction in the effectiveness of vaccines against severe illness and death, and a decline in preventing mild disease and infection. However, WHO reports that so far it looks like the currently available vaccines offer significant protection against severe disease and death. It is also important to be vaccinated to protect against the other widely circulating variants, such as the Delta one. When it’s your turn, make sure to get vaccinated. If your vaccination involves two doses, it’s important to receive both in order to have the maximum protection.With seven countries in South-East Asia Region confirming cases of the new COVID-19 variant Omicron, the World Health Organization today emphasized on urgent scale up of public health and social measures to curtail its further spread. “Countries can – and must – prevent the spread of Omicron with the proven health and social measures. Our focus must continue to be to protect the least protected and those at high risk,” said Dr Poonam Khetrapal Singh, Regional Director, WHO South-East Asia Region. The overall threat posed by Omicron largely depends on three key questions – its transmissibility; how well the vaccines and prior SARS-CoV-2 infection protect against it, and how virulent the variant is as compared to other variants. From what we know so far, Omicron appears to spread faster than the Delta variant which has been attributed to the surge in cases across the world in the last several months, the Regional Director said. Emerging data from South Africa suggests increased risk of re-infection with Omicron, she said, adding that there is still limited data on the clinical severity associated with Omicron. Further information is needed to fully understand the clinical picture of those infected with Omicron. We expect more information in the coming weeks. Omicron should not be dismissed as mild, the Regional Director said, adding that even if it does cause less severe disease, the sheer number of cases could once again overwhelm health systems. Hence, health care capacity including ICU beds, oxygen availability, adequate health care staff and surge capacity need to be reviewed and strengthened at all levels. “We must continue to do it all. Protect yourself and protect each other. Get vaccinated, wear a mask, keep a distance, open windows, clean your hands and cough and sneeze safely. Continue to take all precautions even after taking vaccine doses,” the Regional Director said. On the impact of the new variant on vaccines, Dr Khetrapal Singh said preliminary data suggests that that vaccines may likely have reduced effectiveness against infections by the Omicron variant. However, studies are underway to better understand the extent to which Omicron may evade vaccine and/or infection derived immunity and the extent to which current vaccines continue to protect against severe disease and death associated with Omicron. Globally, the pandemic is driven by the Delta variant, against which the vaccines continue to provide a robust level of protection from severe disease, hospitalization, and death. Hence, our efforts to scale-up vaccination coverage must continue.Omicron should not be dismissed as mild, the Regional Director said, adding that even if it does cause less severe disease, the sheer number of cases could once again overwhelm health systems. Patient Access Connect), which provides an integrated triage tool and automated referral to any participating pharmacy. It is already seeing huge success. Between June and September 2021, around 2,500 patients were successfully referred for a personal consultation with a community pharmacist of their choice.For Ed Garvey, who is part of the CCG’s primary care team, having the option to assess a patient referral using a clinically-designed assessment tool means that “receptionists and practice teams have the added confidence that they can refer to this tool when they need some reassurance.”GP Dr Jeremy Imms has remarked on the “huge cost saving to the practice, as each referral is saving a clinician’s appointment. By broadening access to the wider primary care, patients are getting a better service and we are taking a little bit of pressure out of GP surgeries.” For Michael Lennox, a community pharmacist in Somerset, the CPCS service is “beginning to make a discernible difference in channel shift. We are convinced that our partnership-working philosophy has enabled us to achieve at-pace and best-in-class practical delivery.” Implementing the CPCSPractices can start referring into the CPCS straight away, as soon as the secure electronic referral process has been agreed with local community pharmacies. There is lots of support available through your local implementation lead or on FutureNHS. EMIS practices wishing to use local services can contact their local EMIS team

  • MADHU KUMARI DEV 297 Hrs 22 Min 08 Sec

    #madhu dev# jv-u/18/2098 #jvwu#7th sem In order to make Janaushadhi medicines more accessible, Information Technology (IT) enabled End-to-End supply chain system with Point-of-Sale (PoS) application for value added services has been implemented under the scheme. The medicines to individual Kendras are supplied through three ware houses at Gurugram, Chennai and Guwahati and 39 distributors appointed across the country. Pharmaceutical & Medical Devices Bureau of India (PMBI), the implementing agency for the scheme spreads awareness about generic medicines through various types of advertisements such as TV, FM Radio, Auto wrapping, Cinema, Bus Brandings, State Transport Bus Stands, Digital Screen Advertisement at Railway Stations, etc. Nutrition affects the overall development of not only an individual, but also an entire nation. This is because a diet deficit in nutritive value can have long-term impact on health, leading to diet-related disorders. This usually results in less productivity as physical output and capacity decrease, leading to economic loss on a macro level, directly affecting the development of an entire nation. To lead an active and healthy lifestyle, a well-balanced diet combined with regular physical exercise is crucial. Good nutrition boosts immunity, cuts the risk of mental and physical disorders and helps in fighting diseases. Vitamins are essential to any diet as they help in the normal growth of a human being. A recent survey shows that most Indians suffer from a Vitamin D, Vitamin B12 and Vitamin B9 deficiency. To add to this, we also suffer from Vitamin A deficiency and are deficit in essential minerals such as zinc and iron. Micronutrients, comprising vitamins and minerals, form the backbone of a good and well-balanced nutritive diet. Nutrition cann

  • JAYANTI GUPTA 297 Hrs 25 Min 12 Sec

    #jayanti gupta #18273 #bpharm 7th sem #jayoti vidyapeeth womens university In order to make Janaushadhi medicines more accessible, Information Technology (IT) enabled End-to-End supply chain system with Point-of-Sale (PoS) application for value added services has been implemented under the scheme. The medicines to individual Kendras are supplied through three ware houses at Gurugram, Chennai and Guwahati and 39 distributors appointed across the country. Pharmaceutical & Medical Devices Bureau of India (PMBI), the implementing agency for the scheme spreads awareness about generic medicines through various types of advertisements such as TV, FM Radio, Auto wrapping, Cinema, Bus Brandings, State Transport Bus Stands, Digital Screen Advertisement at Railway Stations, etc. Nutrition affects the overall development of not only an individual, but also an entire nation. This is because a diet deficit in nutritive value can have long-term impact on health, leading to diet-related disorders. This usually results in less productivity as physical output and capacity decrease, leading to economic loss on a macro level, directly affecting the development of an entire nation. To lead an active and healthy lifestyle, a well-balanced diet combined with regular physical exercise is crucial. Good nutrition boosts immunity, cuts the risk of mental and physical disorders and helps in fighting diseases. Vitamins are essential to any diet as they help in the normal growth of a human being. A recent survey shows that most Indians suffer from a Vitamin D, Vitamin B12 and Vitamin B9 deficiency. To add to this, we also suffer from Vitamin A deficiency and are deficit in essential minerals such as zinc and iron. Micronutrients, comprising vitamins and minerals, form the backbone of a good and well-balanced nutritive diet. Nutrition cannot be just a means to get something done; it is the pathway to success in daily life, to play any sport and an important aspect to keep one active.

  • PRIYA ROY 297 Hrs 25 Min 53 Sec

    #priya roy#jv-u/18/2116#bpharm #7th sem #jvwuThe Omicron variant of COVID-19 has been called a variant of concern by WHO based on the evidence that it has several mutations that may have an impact on how it behaves. There is still substantial uncertainty regarding Omicron and a lot of research underway to evaluate its transmissibility, severity and reinfection risk. When a virus is circulating widely and causing numerous infections, the likelihood of the virus mutating increases. The more opportunities a virus has to spread, the more opportunities it has to undergo changes. New variants like Omicron are a reminder that the COVID-19 pandemic is far from over. It is therefore essential that people get the vaccine when available to them and continue to follow existing advice on preventing the spread of the virus, including physical distancing, wearing masks, regular handwashing and keeping indoor areas well ventilated. It is also crucial that vaccines and other public health measures are accessible everywhere. Vaccine inequity leaves lower income countries – many of them in Africa – at the mercy of COVID-19. Well-supplied countries must urgently deliver the doses they promised. The Omicron variant has now been detected in many countries around the world. WHO reports that Omicron is probably in most countries, even if it hasn’t been detected yet. Early findings suggest that Omicron might be less severe than the Delta variant, but more data is needed and WHO warns that it should not be dismissed as “mild”. Studies are ongoing and this information will be updated as it becomes available. It is important to remember that all variants of COVID-19 can cause severe disease or death, including the Delta variant that is still dominant worldwide, which is why preventing the spread of the virus and reducing your risk of exposure to the virus is so important.Omicron is spreading more quickly than other variants. Based on the information available, WHO believes it is likely that Omicron will outpace the Delta variant where there is COVID-19 transmission in the community. However, being vaccinated and taking precautions such as avoiding crowded spaces, keeping your distance from others and wearing a mask are critical in helping to prevent the spread of COVID-19, and we know these actions have been effective against other variants. Researchers are looking into any potential impact the Omicron variant has on the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines. Information is still limited, but there may be a small reduction in the effectiveness of vaccines against severe illness and death, and a decline in preventing mild disease and infection. However, WHO reports that so far it looks like the currently available vaccines offer significant protection against severe disease and death. It is also important to be vaccinated to protect against the other widely circulating variants, such as the Delta one. When it’s your turn, make sure to get vaccinated. If your vaccination involves two doses, it’s important to receive both in order to have the maximum protection.With seven countries in South-East Asia Region confirming cases of the new COVID-19 variant Omicron, the World Health Organization today emphasized on urgent scale up of public health and social measures to curtail its further spread. “Countries can – and must – prevent the spread of Omicron with the proven health and social measures. Our focus must continue to be to protect the least protected and those at high risk,” said Dr Poonam Khetrapal Singh, Regional Director, WHO South-East Asia Region. The overall threat posed by Omicron largely depends on three key questions – its transmissibility; how well the vaccines and prior SARS-CoV-2 infection protect against it, and how virulent the variant is as compared to other variants. From what we know so far, Omicron appears to spread faster than the Delta variant which has been attributed to the surge in cases across the world in the last several months, the Regional Director said. Emerging data from South Africa suggests increased risk of re-infection with Omicron, she said, adding that there is still limited data on the clinical severity associated with Omicron. Further information is needed to fully understand the clinical picture of those infected with Omicron. We expect more information in the coming weeks. Omicron should not be dismissed as mild, the Regional Director said, adding that even if it does cause less severe disease, the sheer number of cases could once again overwhelm health systems. Hence, health care capacity including ICU beds, oxygen availability, adequate health care staff and surge capacity need to be reviewed and strengthened at all levels. “We must continue to do it all. Protect yourself and protect each other. Get vaccinated, wear a mask, keep a distance, open windows, clean your hands and cough and sneeze safely. Continue to take all precautions even after taking vaccine doses,” the Regional Director said. On the impact of the new variant on vaccines, Dr Khetrapal Singh said preliminary data suggests that that vaccines may likely have reduced effectiveness against infections by the Omicron variant. However, studies are underway to better understand the extent to which Omicron may evade vaccine and/or infection derived immunity and the extent to which current vaccines continue to protect against severe disease and death associated with Omicron. Globally, the pandemic is driven by the Delta variant, against which the vaccines continue to provide a robust level of protection from severe disease, hospitalization, and death. Hence, our efforts to scale-up vaccination coverage must continue.Omicron should not be dismissed as mild, the Regional Director said, adding that even if it does cause less severe disease, the sheer number of cases could once again overwhelm health systems. Patient Access Connect), which provides an integrated triage tool and automated referral to any participating pharmacy. It is already seeing huge success. Between June and September 2021, around 2,500 patients were successfully referred for a personal consultation with a community pharmacist of their choice.For Ed Garvey, who is part of the CCG’s primary care team, having the option to assess a patient referral using a clinically-designed assessment tool means that “receptionists and practice teams have the added confidence that they can refer to this tool when they need some reassurance.”GP Dr Jeremy Imms has remarked on the “huge cost saving to the practice, as each referral is saving a clinician’s appointment. By broadening access to the wider primary care, patients are getting a better service and we are taking a little bit of pressure out of GP surgeries.” For Michael Lennox, a community pharmacist in Somerset, the CPCS service is “beginning to make a discernible difference in channel shift. We are convinced that our partnership-working philosophy has enabled us to achieve at-pace and best-in-class practical delivery.” Implementing the CPCSPractices can start referring into the CPCS straight away, as soon as the secure electronic referral process has been agreed with local community pharmacies. There is lots of support available through your local implementation lead or on FutureNHS. EMIS practices wishing to use local services can contact their local EMIS team.

  • ALISHA UJJENIYA 297 Hrs 28 Min 50 Sec

    #ALISHA UJJENIYA # B PHARMA #7th sem #jv-u/18/2273#jvwuThe Omicron variant of COVID-19 has been called a variant of concern by WHO based on the evidence that it has several mutations that may have an impact on how it behaves. There is still substantial uncertainty regarding Omicron and a lot of research underway to evaluate its transmissibility, severity and reinfection risk. When a virus is circulating widely and causing numerous infections, the likelihood of the virus mutating increases. The more opportunities a virus has to spread, the more opportunities it has to undergo changes. New variants like Omicron are a reminder that the COVID-19 pandemic is far from over. It is therefore essential that people get the vaccine when available to them and continue to follow existing advice on preventing the spread of the virus, including physical distancing, wearing masks, regular handwashing and keeping indoor areas well ventilated. It is also crucial that vaccines and other public health measures are accessible everywhere. Vaccine inequity leaves lower income countries – many of them in Africa – at the mercy of COVID-19. Well-supplied countries must urgently deliver the doses they promised. The Omicron variant has now been detected in many countries around the world. WHO reports that Omicron is probably in most countries, even if it hasn’t been detected yet. Early findings suggest that Omicron might be less severe than the Delta variant, but more data is needed and WHO warns that it should not be dismissed as “mild”. Studies are ongoing and this information will be updated as it becomes available. It is important to remember that all variants of COVID-19 can cause severe disease or death, including the Delta variant that is still dominant worldwide, which is why preventing the spread of the virus and reducing your risk of exposure to the virus is so important.Omicron is spreading more quickly than other variants. Based on the information available, WHO believes it is likely that Omicron will outpace the Delta variant where there is COVID-19 transmission in the community. However, being vaccinated and taking precautions such as avoiding crowded spaces, keeping your distance from others and wearing a mask are critical in helping to prevent the spread of COVID-19, and we know these actions have been effective against other variants. Researchers are looking into any potential impact the Omicron variant has on the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines. Information is still limited, but there may be a small reduction in the effectiveness of vaccines against severe illness and death, and a decline in preventing mild disease and infection. However, WHO reports that so far it looks like the currently available vaccines offer significant protection against severe disease and death. It is also important to be vaccinated to protect against the other widely circulating variants, such as the Delta one. When it’s your turn, make sure to get vaccinated. If your vaccination involves two doses, it’s important to receive both in order to have the maximum protection.With seven countries in South-East Asia Region confirming cases of the new COVID-19 variant Omicron, the World Health Organization today emphasized on urgent scale up of public health and social measures to curtail its further spread. “Countries can – and must – prevent the spread of Omicron with the proven health and social measures. Our focus must continue to be to protect the least protected and those at high risk,” said Dr Poonam Khetrapal Singh, Regional Director, WHO South-East Asia Region. The overall threat posed by Omicron largely depends on three key questions – its transmissibility; how well the vaccines and prior SARS-CoV-2 infection protect against it, and how virulent the variant is as compared to other variants. From what we know so far, Omicron appears to spread faster than the Delta variant which has been attributed to the surge in cases across the world in the last several months, the Regional Director said. Emerging data from South Africa suggests increased risk of re-infection with Omicron, she said, adding that there is still limited data on the clinical severity associated with Omicron. Further information is needed to fully understand the clinical picture of those infected with Omicron. We expect more information in the coming weeks. Omicron should not be dismissed as mild, the Regional Director said, adding that even if it does cause less severe disease, the sheer number of cases could once again overwhelm health systems. Hence, health care capacity including ICU beds, oxygen availability, adequate health care staff and surge capacity need to be reviewed and strengthened at all levels. “We must continue to do it all. Protect yourself and protect each other. Get vaccinated, wear a mask, keep a distance, open windows, clean your hands and cough and sneeze safely. Continue to take all precautions even after taking vaccine doses,” the Regional Director said. On the impact of the new variant on vaccines, Dr Khetrapal Singh said preliminary data suggests that that vaccines may likely have reduced effectiveness against infections by the Omicron variant. However, studies are underway to better understand the extent to which Omicron may evade vaccine and/or infection derived immunity and the extent to which current vaccines continue to protect against severe disease and death associated with Omicron. Globally, the pandemic is driven by the Delta variant, against which the vaccines continue to provide a robust level of protection from severe disease, hospitalization, and death. Hence, our efforts to scale-up vaccination coverage must continue.Omicron should not be dismissed as mild, the Regional Director said, adding that even if it does cause less severe disease, the sheer number of cases could once again overwhelm health systems. Patient Access Connect), which provides an integrated triage tool and automated referral to any participating pharmacy. It is already seeing huge success. Between June and September 2021, around 2,500 patients were successfully referred for a personal consultation with a community pharmacist of their choice.For Ed Garvey, who is part of the CCG’s primary care team, having the option to assess a patient referral using a clinically-designed assessment tool means that “receptionists and practice teams have the added confidence that they can refer to this tool when they need some reassurance.”GP Dr Jeremy Imms has remarked on the “huge cost saving to the practice, as each referral is saving a clinician’s appointment. By broadening access to the wider primary care, patients are getting a better service and we are taking a little bit of pressure out of GP surgeries.” For Michael Lennox, a community pharmacist in Somerset, the CPCS service is “beginning to make a discernible difference in channel shift. We are convinced that our partnership-working philosophy has enabled us to achieve at-pace and best-in-class practical delivery.” Implementing the CPCSPractices can start referring into the CPCS straight away, as soon as the secure electronic referral process has been agreed with local community pharmacies. There is lots of support available through your local implementation lead or on FutureNHS. EMIS practices wishing to use local services can contact their local EMIS team.

  • SUNAKSHI SINGH 297 Hrs 41 Min 41 Sec

    #Sunakshi singh, #B-pharma #5thsem #jv-u/19/3057 #jvwu The Omicron variant of COVID-19 has been called a variant of concern by WHO based on the evidence that it has several mutations that may have an impact on how it behaves. There is still substantial uncertainty regarding Omicron and a lot of research underway to evaluate its transmissibility, severity and reinfection risk. When a virus is circulating widely and causing numerous infections, the likelihood of the virus mutating increases. The more opportunities a virus has to spread, the more opportunities it has to undergo changes. New variants like Omicron are a reminder that the COVID-19 pandemic is far from over. It is therefore essential that people get the vaccine when available to them and continue to follow existing advice on preventing the spread of the virus, including physical distancing, wearing masks, regular handwashing and keeping indoor areas well ventilated. It is also crucial that vaccines and other public health measures are accessible everywhere. Vaccine inequity leaves lower income countries – many of them in Africa – at the mercy of COVID-19. Well-supplied countries must urgently deliver the doses they promised. The Omicron variant has now been detected in many countries around the world. WHO reports that Omicron is probably in most countries, even if it hasn’t been detected yet. Early findings suggest that Omicron might be less severe than the Delta variant, but more data is needed and WHO warns that it should not be dismissed as “mild”. Studies are ongoing and this information will be updated as it becomes available. It is important to remember that all variants of COVID-19 can cause severe disease or death, including the Delta variant that is still dominant worldwide, which is why preventing the spread of the virus and reducing your risk of exposure to the virus is so important.Omicron is spreading more quickly than other variants. Based on the information available, WHO believes it is likely that Omicron will outpace the Delta variant where there is COVID-19 transmission in the community. However, being vaccinated and taking precautions such as avoiding crowded spaces, keeping your distance from others and wearing a mask are critical in helping to prevent the spread of COVID-19, and we know these actions have been effective against other variants. Researchers are looking into any potential impact the Omicron variant has on the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines. Information is still limited, but there may be a small reduction in the effectiveness of vaccines against severe illness and death, and a decline in preventing mild disease and infection. However, WHO reports that so far it looks like the currently available vaccines offer significant protection against severe disease and death. It is also important to be vaccinated to protect against the other widely circulating variants, such as the Delta one. When it’s your turn, make sure to get vaccinated. If your vaccination involves two doses, it’s important to receive both in order to have the maximum protection.With seven countries in South-East Asia Region confirming cases of the new COVID-19 variant Omicron, the World Health Organization today emphasized on urgent scale up of public health and social measures to curtail its further spread. “Countries can – and must – prevent the spread of Omicron with the proven health and social measures. Our focus must continue to be to protect the least protected and those at high risk,” said Dr Poonam Khetrapal Singh, Regional Director, WHO South-East Asia Region. The overall threat posed by Omicron largely depends on three key questions – its transmissibility; how well the vaccines and prior SARS-CoV-2 infection protect against it, and how virulent the variant is as compared to other variants. From what we know so far, Omicron appears to spread faster than the Delta variant which has been attributed to the surge in cases across the world in the last several months, the Regional Director said. Emerging data from South Africa suggests increased risk of re-infection with Omicron, she said, adding that there is still limited data on the clinical severity associated with Omicron. Further information is needed to fully understand the clinical picture of those infected with Omicron. We expect more information in the coming weeks. Omicron should not be dismissed as mild, the Regional Director said, adding that even if it does cause less severe disease, the sheer number of cases could once again overwhelm health systems. Hence, health care capacity including ICU beds, oxygen availability, adequate health care staff and surge capacity need to be reviewed and strengthened at all levels. “We must continue to do it all. Protect yourself and protect each other. Get vaccinated, wear a mask, keep a distance, open windows, clean your hands and cough and sneeze safely. Continue to take all precautions even after taking vaccine doses,” the Regional Director said. On the impact of the new variant on vaccines, Dr Khetrapal Singh said preliminary data suggests that that vaccines may likely have reduced effectiveness against infections by the Omicron variant. However, studies are underway to better understand the extent to which Omicron may evade vaccine and/or infection derived immunity and the extent to which current vaccines continue to protect against severe disease and death associated with Omicron. Globally, the pandemic is driven by the Delta variant, against which the vaccines continue to provide a robust level of protection from severe disease, hospitalization, and death. Hence, our efforts to scale-up vaccination coverage must continue.Omicron should not be dismissed as mild, the Regional Director said, adding that even if it does cause less severe disease, the sheer number of cases could once again overwhelm health systems. Patient Access Connect), which provides an integrated triage tool and automated referral to any participating pharmacy. It is already seeing huge success. Between June and September 2021, around 2,500 patients were successfully referred for a personal consultation with a community pharmacist of their choice.For Ed Garvey, who is part of the CCG’s primary care team, having the option to assess a patient referral using a clinically-designed assessment tool means that “receptionists and practice teams have the added confidence that they can refer to this tool when they need some reassurance.”GP Dr Jeremy Imms has remarked on the “huge cost saving to the practice, as each referral is saving a clinician’s appointment. By broadening access to the wider primary care, patients are getting a better service and we are taking a little bit of pressure out of GP surgeries.” For Michael Lennox, a community pharmacist in Somerset, the CPCS service is “beginning to make a discernible difference in channel shift. We are convinced that our partnership-working philosophy has enabled us to achieve at-pace and best-in-class practical delivery.” Implementing the CPCSPractices can start referring into the CPCS straight away, as soon as the secure electronic referral process has been agreed with local community pharmacies. There is lots of support available through your local implementation lead or on FutureNHS. EMIS practices wishing to use local services can contact their local EMIS team.

  • SHAGUFTA NAAZ 298 Hrs 10 Min 11 Sec

    #SHAGUFTA NAAZ, #B-pharma #5thsem #jv-u/19/3607 #jvwu The Omicron variant of COVID-19 has been called a variant of concern by WHO based on the evidence that it has several mutations that may have an impact on how it behaves. There is still substantial uncertainty regarding Omicron and a lot of research underway to evaluate its transmissibility, severity and reinfection risk. When a virus is circulating widely and causing numerous infections, the likelihood of the virus mutating increases. The more opportunities a virus has to spread, the more opportunities it has to undergo changes. New variants like Omicron are a reminder that the COVID-19 pandemic is far from over. It is therefore essential that people get the vaccine when available to them and continue to follow existing advice on preventing the spread of the virus, including physical distancing, wearing masks, regular handwashing and keeping indoor areas well ventilated. It is also crucial that vaccines and other public health measures are accessible everywhere. Vaccine inequity leaves lower income countries – many of them in Africa – at the mercy of COVID-19. Well-supplied countries must urgently deliver the doses they promised. The Omicron variant has now been detected in many countries around the world. WHO reports that Omicron is probably in most countries, even if it hasn’t been detected yet. Early findings suggest that Omicron might be less severe than the Delta variant, but more data is needed and WHO warns that it should not be dismissed as “mild”. Studies are ongoing and this information will be updated as it becomes available. It is important to remember that all variants of COVID-19 can cause severe disease or death, including the Delta variant that is still dominant worldwide, which is why preventing the spread of the virus and reducing your risk of exposure to the virus is so important.Omicron is spreading more quickly than other variants. Based on the information available, WHO believes it is likely that Omicron will outpace the Delta variant where there is COVID-19 transmission in the community. However, being vaccinated and taking precautions such as avoiding crowded spaces, keeping your distance from others and wearing a mask are critical in helping to prevent the spread of COVID-19, and we know these actions have been effective against other variants. Researchers are looking into any potential impact the Omicron variant has on the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines. Information is still limited, but there may be a small reduction in the effectiveness of vaccines against severe illness and death, and a decline in preventing mild disease and infection. However, WHO reports that so far it looks like the currently available vaccines offer significant protection against severe disease and death. It is also important to be vaccinated to protect against the other widely circulating variants, such as the Delta one. When it’s your turn, make sure to get vaccinated. If your vaccination involves two doses, it’s important to receive both in order to have the maximum protection.With seven countries in South-East Asia Region confirming cases of the new COVID-19 variant Omicron, the World Health Organization today emphasized on urgent scale up of public health and social measures to curtail its further spread. “Countries can – and must – prevent the spread of Omicron with the proven health and social measures. Our focus must continue to be to protect the least protected and those at high risk,” said Dr Poonam Khetrapal Singh, Regional Director, WHO South-East Asia Region. The overall threat posed by Omicron largely depends on three key questions – its transmissibility; how well the vaccines and prior SARS-CoV-2 infection protect against it, and how virulent the variant is as compared to other variants. From what we know so far, Omicron appears to spread faster than the Delta variant which has been attributed to the surge in cases across the world in the last several months, the Regional Director said. Emerging data from South Africa suggests increased risk of re-infection with Omicron, she said, adding that there is still limited data on the clinical severity associated with Omicron. Further information is needed to fully understand the clinical picture of those infected with Omicron. We expect more information in the coming weeks. Omicron should not be dismissed as mild, the Regional Director said, adding that even if it does cause less severe disease, the sheer number of cases could once again overwhelm health systems. Hence, health care capacity including ICU beds, oxygen availability, adequate health care staff and surge capacity need to be reviewed and strengthened at all levels. “We must continue to do it all. Protect yourself and protect each other. Get vaccinated, wear a mask, keep a distance, open windows, clean your hands and cough and sneeze safely. Continue to take all precautions even after taking vaccine doses,” the Regional Director said. On the impact of the new variant on vaccines, Dr Khetrapal Singh said preliminary data suggests that that vaccines may likely have reduced effectiveness against infections by the Omicron variant. However, studies are underway to better understand the extent to which Omicron may evade vaccine and/or infection derived immunity and the extent to which current vaccines continue to protect against severe disease and death associated with Omicron. Globally, the pandemic is driven by the Delta variant, against which the vaccines continue to provide a robust level of protection from severe disease, hospitalization, and death. Hence, our efforts to scale-up vaccination coverage must continue.Omicron should not be dismissed as mild, the Regional Director said, adding that even if it does cause less severe disease, the sheer number of cases could once again overwhelm health systems. Hence, health care capacity including ICU beds, oxygen availability, adequate health care staff and surge capacity need to be reviewed and strengthened at all levels. “We must continue to do it all. Protect yourself and protect each other. Get vaccinated, wear a mask, keep a distance, open windows, clean your hands and cough and sneeze safely. Continue to take all precautions even after taking vaccine doses,” the Regional Director said. On the impact of the new variant on vaccines, Dr Khetrapal Singh said preliminary data suggests that that vaccines may likely have reduced effectiveness against infections by the Omicron variant. However, studies are underway to better understand the extent to which Omicron may evade vaccine and/or infection derived immunity and the extent to which current vaccines continue to protect against severe disease and death associated with Omicron. Globally, the pandemic is driven by the Delta variant, against which the vaccines continue to provide a robust level of protection from severe disease, hospitalization, and death. Hence, our efforts to scale-up vaccination coverage must continue. “Vaccines are an important tool in our fight against the pandemic.On this occasion Swasth Bharat Yatra-2 Song has also been launched. Media coordinator of this yatra Ashok Priyadarshi said that this Yatra Geet Written by well known bollywood lyricist (Sanju fame) Shekhar Astitva & Music by Dhiraj Sen. Well known playback singer Nisha Mishra and Asha Gupta sung this beautiful Yatra Song Swasth Bharat Ke Teen Ayam:Janaushdhi, Poshan Aur Ayushman

  • RASHI GUPTA 298 Hrs 11 Min 49 Sec

    #RASHI GUPTA ,#B-pharma #5thsem #jv-u/19/3033#jvwu The Omicron variant of COVID-19 has been called a variant of concern by WHO based on the evidence that it has several mutations that may have an impact on how it behaves. There is still substantial uncertainty regarding Omicron and a lot of research underway to evaluate its transmissibility, severity and reinfection risk. When a virus is circulating widely and causing numerous infections, the likelihood of the virus mutating increases. The more opportunities a virus has to spread, the more opportunities it has to undergo changes. New variants like Omicron are a reminder that the COVID-19 pandemic is far from over. It is therefore essential that people get the vaccine when available to them and continue to follow existing advice on preventing the spread of the virus, including physical distancing, wearing masks, regular handwashing and keeping indoor areas well ventilated. It is also crucial that vaccines and other public health measures are accessible everywhere. Vaccine inequity leaves lower income countries – many of them in Africa – at the mercy of COVID-19. Well-supplied countries must urgently deliver the doses they promised. The Omicron variant has now been detected in many countries around the world. WHO reports that Omicron is probably in most countries, even if it hasn’t been detected yet. Early findings suggest that Omicron might be less severe than the Delta variant, but more data is needed and WHO warns that it should not be dismissed as “mild”. Studies are ongoing and this information will be updated as it becomes available. It is important to remember that all variants of COVID-19 can cause severe disease or death, including the Delta variant that is still dominant worldwide, which is why preventing the spread of the virus and reducing your risk of exposure to the virus is so important.Omicron is spreading more quickly than other variants. Based on the information available, WHO believes it is likely that Omicron will outpace the Delta variant where there is COVID-19 transmission in the community. However, being vaccinated and taking precautions such as avoiding crowded spaces, keeping your distance from others and wearing a mask are critical in helping to prevent the spread of COVID-19, and we know these actions have been effective against other variants. Researchers are looking into any potential impact the Omicron variant has on the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines. Information is still limited, but there may be a small reduction in the effectiveness of vaccines against severe illness and death, and a decline in preventing mild disease and infection. However, WHO reports that so far it looks like the currently available vaccines offer significant protection against severe disease and death. It is also important to be vaccinated to protect against the other widely circulating variants, such as the Delta one. When it’s your turn, make sure to get vaccinated. If your vaccination involves two doses, it’s important to receive both in order to have the maximum protection.With seven countries in South-East Asia Region confirming cases of the new COVID-19 variant Omicron, the World Health Organization today emphasized on urgent scale up of public health and social measures to curtail its further spread. “Countries can – and must – prevent the spread of Omicron with the proven health and social measures. Our focus must continue to be to protect the least protected and those at high risk,” said Dr Poonam Khetrapal Singh, Regional Director, WHO South-East Asia Region. The overall threat posed by Omicron largely depends on three key questions – its transmissibility; how well the vaccines and prior SARS-CoV-2 infection protect against it, and how virulent the variant is as compared to other variants. From what we know so far, Omicron appears to spread faster than the Delta variant which has been attributed to the surge in cases across the world in the last several months, the Regional Director said. Emerging data from South Africa suggests increased risk of re-infection with Omicron, she said, adding that there is still limited data on the clinical severity associated with Omicron. Further information is needed to fully understand the clinical picture of those infected with Omicron. We expect more information in the coming weeks. Omicron should not be dismissed as mild, the Regional Director said, adding that even if it does cause less severe disease, the sheer number of cases could once again overwhelm health systems. Hence, health care capacity including ICU beds, oxygen availability, adequate health care staff and surge capacity need to be reviewed and strengthened at all levels. “We must continue to do it all. Protect yourself and protect each other. Get vaccinated, wear a mask, keep a distance, open windows, clean your hands and cough and sneeze safely. Continue to take all precautions even after taking vaccine doses,” the Regional Director said. On the impact of the new variant on vaccines, Dr Khetrapal Singh said preliminary data suggests that that vaccines may likely have reduced effectiveness against infections by the Omicron variant. However, studies are underway to better understand the extent to which Omicron may evade vaccine and/or infection derived immunity and the extent to which current vaccines continue to protect against severe disease and death associated with Omicron. Globally, the pandemic is driven by the Delta variant, against which the vaccines continue to provide a robust level of protection from severe disease, hospitalization, and death. Hence, our efforts to scale-up vaccination coverage must continue.Omicron should not be dismissed as mild, the Regional Director said, adding that even if it does cause less severe disease, the sheer number of cases could once again overwhelm health systems. Hence, health care capacity including ICU beds, oxygen availability, adequate health care staff and surge capacity need to be reviewed and strengthened at all levels. “We must continue to do it all. Protect yourself and protect each other. Get vaccinated, wear a mask, keep a distance, open windows, clean your hands and cough and sneeze safely. Continue to take all precautions even after taking vaccine doses,” the Regional Director said. On the impact of the new variant on vaccines, Dr Khetrapal Singh said preliminary data suggests that that vaccines may likely have reduced effectiveness against infections by the Omicron variant. However, studies are underway to better understand the extent to which Omicron may evade vaccine and/or infection derived immunity and the extent to which current vaccines continue to protect against severe disease and death associated with Omicron. Globally, the pandemic is driven by the Delta variant, against which the vaccines continue to provide a robust level of protection from severe disease, hospitalization, and death. Hence, our efforts to scale-up vaccination coverage must continue. “Vaccines are an important tool in our fight against the pandemic.On this occasion Swasth Bharat Yatra-2 Song has also been launched. Media coordinator of this yatra Ashok Priyadarshi said that this Yatra Geet Written by well known bollywood lyricist (Sanju fame) Shekhar Astitva & Music by Dhiraj Sen. Well known playback singer Nisha Mishra and Asha Gupta sung this beautiful Yatra Song Swasth Bharat Ke Teen Ayam:Janaushdhi, Poshan Aur Ayushman

  • LAXMI GOSHWAMI 298 Hrs 15 Min 05 Sec

    #Laxmi goswami # jv-u/20/4115 # b pharm 3 sem#jayoti vidhyapeeth womens university#jv mission#community pharmacy and primary heath care to prevent omicronAs pressures on primary care start to bite, an innovative way of working with community pharmacy might be just what the doctor ordered.As the NHS approaches another winter, primary care will be dealing with an expanded booster programme, business-as-usual GP appointments, additional winter pressures and a bigger-than-ever annual flu vaccination programme. All this adds up to huge pressure on appointments – and thats before weve even factored in the uncertainty the Omicron variant brings.One innovative way we can ease pressures on primary care is to encourage general practices to implement the GP Community Pharmacist Consultation Service (CPCS).GP CPCS offers patients minor illness consultations with a community pharmacist within one working day and is widely used to refer patients contacting 111 with minor illness queries to local community pharmacies. The service allows GP teams to refer patients presenting with minor illnesses directly for a consultation with their local community pharmacy, where appropriate.Given that it is a condition of the Winter Access Funding that practices sign up to deliver CPCS, primary care networks (PCNs) are developing plans for increasing appropriate referrals through to community pharmacies via the GP CPCS. In October 2021, about 44 per cent of GP practices were planning to operationalise the service or were actively making referralsIt is estimated that 6 per cent of all GP consultations (20.4 million appointments per year), could be safely managed by a community pharmacist. Offering these patients a formal referral to, and appointment with, a community pharmacist can allow them to be seen more quickly than if they waited for a GP appointment. Appointment time freed up can be used to see patients with more complex medical needs. There is good evidence that advice provided by community pharmacists about minor illness results in the same outcome as if the patient went to see their GP or attended an emergency department. In my own area, we have definitely seen an increase in consultation rates for minor illnesses in the last few months. So many patients dont realise that a pharmacist can supply many of the same medications for minor illness they would get on prescription from a GP. Nor do they know that pharmacists are highly trained to deal with minor illnesses. As a consequence, receptionists often find themselves pushing against an open door when they explain to the patient that they will usually be able to get a consultation much more quickly with a pharmacist than with a GP. When I speak to patients who have previously used CPCS, almost without exception they sing its praises. It really has made a positive difference to receptionists to have another service to offer patients, reducing the need to tell patients to call back.How it works When a patient with minor illness symptoms contacts their GP practice requesting an appointment, the care navigator or receptionist can refer them directly to a local pharmacist of their choice. Brief structured symptom checklists can help identify patients who can be safely referred. With the patient’s consent, the practice team can send an electronic referral message to the pharmacy the patient has chosen, to support safe follow up and audit.Following the referral, the patient can be advised to contact the pharmacy and sent details of their referral electronically. If they do not make contact, the pharmacist will contact the patient within 12 hours by phone and either carry out the consultation by telephone or arrange a video consultation or for the patient to attend the pharmacy, if appropriate. Somerset CCG is in the early stages of embedding CPCS across the whole county using local services (currently known as Patient Access Connect), which provides an integrated triage tool and automated referral to any participating pharmacy. It is already seeing huge success. Between June and September 2021, around 2,500 patients were successfully referred for a personal consultation with a community pharmacist of their choice.For Ed Garvey, who is part of the CCG’s primary care team, having the option to assess a patient referral using a clinically-designed assessment tool means that “receptionists and practice teams have the added confidence that they can refer to this tool when they need some reassurance.”GP Dr Jeremy Imms has remarked on the “huge cost saving to the practice, as each referral is saving a clinician’s appointment. By broadening access to the wider primary care, patients are getting a better service and we are taking a little bit of pressure out of GP surgeries.” For Michael Lennox, a community pharmacist in Somerset, the CPCS service is “beginning to make a discernible difference in channel shift. We are convinced that our partnership-working philosophy has enabled us to achieve at-pace and best-in-class practical delivery.” Implementing the CPCSPractices can start referring into the CPCS straight away, as soon as the secure electronic referral process has been agreed with local community pharmacies. There is lots of support available through your local implementation lead or on FutureNHS. EMIS practices wishing to use local services can contact their local EMIS team.

  • PRITY KUMARI 298 Hrs 16 Min 09 Sec

    #PRITY KUMARI,#B-pharma #5thsem #jv-u/19/3048 #jvwu The Omicron variant of COVID-19 has been called a variant of concern by WHO based on the evidence that it has several mutations that may have an impact on how it behaves. There is still substantial uncertainty regarding Omicron and a lot of research underway to evaluate its transmissibility, severity and reinfection risk. When a virus is circulating widely and causing numerous infections, the likelihood of the virus mutating increases. The more opportunities a virus has to spread, the more opportunities it has to undergo changes. New variants like Omicron are a reminder that the COVID-19 pandemic is far from over. It is therefore essential that people get the vaccine when available to them and continue to follow existing advice on preventing the spread of the virus, including physical distancing, wearing masks, regular handwashing and keeping indoor areas well ventilated. It is also crucial that vaccines and other public health measures are accessible everywhere. Vaccine inequity leaves lower income countries – many of them in Africa – at the mercy of COVID-19. Well-supplied countries must urgently deliver the doses they promised. The Omicron variant has now been detected in many countries around the world. WHO reports that Omicron is probably in most countries, even if it hasn’t been detected yet. Early findings suggest that Omicron might be less severe than the Delta variant, but more data is needed and WHO warns that it should not be dismissed as “mild”. Studies are ongoing and this information will be updated as it becomes available. It is important to remember that all variants of COVID-19 can cause severe disease or death, including the Delta variant that is still dominant worldwide, which is why preventing the spread of the virus and reducing your risk of exposure to the virus is so important.Omicron is spreading more quickly than other variants. Based on the information available, WHO believes it is likely that Omicron will outpace the Delta variant where there is COVID-19 transmission in the community. However, being vaccinated and taking precautions such as avoiding crowded spaces, keeping your distance from others and wearing a mask are critical in helping to prevent the spread of COVID-19, and we know these actions have been effective against other variants. Researchers are looking into any potential impact the Omicron variant has on the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines. Information is still limited, but there may be a small reduction in the effectiveness of vaccines against severe illness and death, and a decline in preventing mild disease and infection. However, WHO reports that so far it looks like the currently available vaccines offer significant protection against severe disease and death. It is also important to be vaccinated to protect against the other widely circulating variants, such as the Delta one. When it’s your turn, make sure to get vaccinated. If your vaccination involves two doses, it’s important to receive both in order to have the maximum protection.With seven countries in South-East Asia Region confirming cases of the new COVID-19 variant Omicron, the World Health Organization today emphasized on urgent scale up of public health and social measures to curtail its further spread. “Countries can – and must – prevent the spread of Omicron with the proven health and social measures. Our focus must continue to be to protect the least protected and those at high risk,” said Dr Poonam Khetrapal Singh, Regional Director, WHO South-East Asia Region. The overall threat posed by Omicron largely depends on three key questions – its transmissibility; how well the vaccines and prior SARS-CoV-2 infection protect against it, and how virulent the variant is as compared to other variants. From what we know so far, Omicron appears to spread faster than the Delta variant which has been attributed to the surge in cases across the world in the last several months, the Regional Director said. Emerging data from South Africa suggests increased risk of re-infection with Omicron, she said, adding that there is still limited data on the clinical severity associated with Omicron. Further information is needed to fully understand the clinical picture of those infected with Omicron. We expect more information in the coming weeks. Omicron should not be dismissed as mild, the Regional Director said, adding that even if it does cause less severe disease, the sheer number of cases could once again overwhelm health systems. Hence, health care capacity including ICU beds, oxygen availability, adequate health care staff and surge capacity need to be reviewed and strengthened at all levels. “We must continue to do it all. Protect yourself and protect each other. Get vaccinated, wear a mask, keep a distance, open windows, clean your hands and cough and sneeze safely. Continue to take all precautions even after taking vaccine doses,” the Regional Director said. On the impact of the new variant on vaccines, Dr Khetrapal Singh said preliminary data suggests that that vaccines may likely have reduced effectiveness against infections by the Omicron variant. However, studies are underway to better understand the extent to which Omicron may evade vaccine and/or infection derived immunity and the extent to which current vaccines continue to protect against severe disease and death associated with Omicron. Globally, the pandemic is driven by the Delta variant, against which the vaccines continue to provide a robust level of protection from severe disease, hospitalization, and death. Hence, our efforts to scale-up vaccination coverage must continue.Omicron should not be dismissed as mild, the Regional Director said, adding that even if it does cause less severe disease, the sheer number of cases could once again overwhelm health systems. Hence, health care capacity including ICU beds, oxygen availability, adequate health care staff and surge capacity need to be reviewed and strengthened at all levels. “We must continue to do it all. Protect yourself and protect each other. Get vaccinated, wear a mask, keep a distance, open windows, clean your hands and cough and sneeze safely. Continue to take all precautions even after taking vaccine doses,” the Regional Director said. On the impact of the new variant on vaccines, Dr Khetrapal Singh said preliminary data suggests that that vaccines may likely have reduced effectiveness against infections by the Omicron variant. However, studies are underway to better understand the extent to which Omicron may evade vaccine and/or infection derived immunity and the extent to which current vaccines continue to protect against severe disease and death associated with Omicron. Globally, the pandemic is driven by the Delta variant, against which the vaccines continue to provide a robust level of protection from severe disease, hospitalization, and death. Hence, our efforts to scale-up vaccination coverage must continue. “Vaccines are an important tool in our fight against the pandemic.On this occasion Swasth Bharat Yatra-2 Song has also been launched. Media coordinator of this yatra Ashok Priyadarshi said that this Yatra Geet Written by well known bollywood lyricist (Sanju fame) Shekhar Astitva & Music by Dhiraj Sen. Well known playback singer Nisha Mishra and Asha Gupta sung this beautiful Yatra Song Swasth Bharat Ke Teen Ayam:Janaushdhi, Poshan Aur Ayushman

  • AYUSHI JAIN 298 Hrs 17 Min 11 Sec

    #nandinisharma #jv-u/19/3037 #b pharm5sem #jayoti vidhyapeeth womens university#jv mission#community pharmacy and primary heath care to prevent omicronAs pressures on primary care start to bite, an innovative way of working with community pharmacy might be just what the doctor ordered.As the NHS approaches another winter, primary care will be dealing with an expanded booster programme, business-as-usual GP appointments, additional winter pressures and a bigger-than-ever annual flu vaccination programme. All this adds up to huge pressure on appointments – and thats before weve even factored in the uncertainty the Omicron variant brings.One innovative way we can ease pressures on primary care is to encourage general practices to implement the GP Community Pharmacist Consultation Service (CPCS).GP CPCS offers patients minor illness consultations with a community pharmacist within one working day and is widely used to refer patients contacting 111 with minor illness queries to local community pharmacies. The service allows GP teams to refer patients presenting with minor illnesses directly for a consultation with their local community pharmacy, where appropriate.Given that it is a condition of the Winter Access Funding that practices sign up to deliver CPCS, primary care networks (PCNs) are developing plans for increasing appropriate referrals through to community pharmacies via the GP CPCS. In October 2021, about 44 per cent of GP practices were planning to operationalise the service or were actively making referralsIt is estimated that 6 per cent of all GP consultations (20.4 million appointments per year), could be safely managed by a community pharmacist. Offering these patients a formal referral to, and appointment with, a community pharmacist can allow them to be seen more quickly than if they waited for a GP appointment. Appointment time freed up can be used to see patients with more complex medical needs. There is good evidence that advice provided by community pharmacists about minor illness results in the same outcome as if the patient went to see their GP or attended an emergency department. In my own area, we have definitely seen an increase in consultation rates for minor illnesses in the last few months. So many patients dont realise that a pharmacist can supply many of the same medications for minor illness they would get on prescription from a GP. Nor do they know that pharmacists are highly trained to deal with minor illnesses. As a consequence, receptionists often find themselves pushing against an open door when they explain to the patient that they will usually be able to get a consultation much more quickly with a pharmacist than with a GP. When I speak to patients who have previously used CPCS, almost without exception they sing its praises. It really has made a positive difference to receptionists to have another service to offer patients, reducing the need to tell patients to call back.How it works When a patient with minor illness symptoms contacts their GP practice requesting an appointment, the care navigator or receptionist can refer them directly to a local pharmacist of their choice. Brief structured symptom checklists can help identify patients who can be safely referred. With the patient’s consent, the practice team can send an electronic referral message to the pharmacy the patient has chosen, to support safe follow up and audit.Following the referral, the patient can be advised to contact the pharmacy and sent details of their referral electronically. If they do not make contact, the pharmacist will contact the patient within 12 hours by phone and either carry out the consultation by telephone or arrange a video consultation or for the patient to attend the pharmacy, if appropriate. Somerset CCG is in the early stages of embedding CPCS across the whole county using local services (currently known as Patient Access Connect), which provides an integrated triage tool and automated referral to any participating pharmacy. It is already seeing huge success. Between June and September 2021, around 2,500 patients were successfully referred for a personal consultation with a community pharmacist of their choice.For Ed Garvey, who is part of the CCG’s primary care team, having the option to assess a patient referral using a clinically-designed assessment tool means that “receptionists and practice teams have the added confidence that they can refer to this tool when they need some reassurance.”GP Dr Jeremy Imms has remarked on the “huge cost saving to the practice, as each referral is saving a clinician’s appointment. By broadening access to the wider primary care, patients are getting a better service and we are taking a little bit of pressure out of GP surgeries.” For Michael Lennox, a community pharmacist in Somerset, the CPCS service is “beginning to make a discernible difference in channel shift. We are convinced that our partnership-working philosophy has enabled us to achieve at-pace and best-in-class practical delivery.” Implementing the CPCSPractices can start referring into the CPCS straight away, as soon as the secure electronic referral process has been agreed with local community pharmacies. There is lots of support available through your local implementation lead or on FutureNHS. EMIS practices wishing to use local services can contact their local EMIS team.

  • AYUSHI JAIN 298 Hrs 18 Min 08 Sec

    #Ayushi jain#jv-u/19/3562#b pharm 5 sem#jayoti vidhyapeeth womens university#jv mission#community pharmacy and primary heath care to prevent omicronAs pressures on primary care start to bite, an innovative way of working with community pharmacy might be just what the doctor ordered.As the NHS approaches another winter, primary care will be dealing with an expanded booster programme, business-as-usual GP appointments, additional winter pressures and a bigger-than-ever annual flu vaccination programme. All this adds up to huge pressure on appointments – and thats before weve even factored in the uncertainty the Omicron variant brings.One innovative way we can ease pressures on primary care is to encourage general practices to implement the GP Community Pharmacist Consultation Service (CPCS).GP CPCS offers patients minor illness consultations with a community pharmacist within one working day and is widely used to refer patients contacting 111 with minor illness queries to local community pharmacies. The service allows GP teams to refer patients presenting with minor illnesses directly for a consultation with their local community pharmacy, where appropriate.Given that it is a condition of the Winter Access Funding that practices sign up to deliver CPCS, primary care networks (PCNs) are developing plans for increasing appropriate referrals through to community pharmacies via the GP CPCS. In October 2021, about 44 per cent of GP practices were planning to operationalise the service or were actively making referralsIt is estimated that 6 per cent of all GP consultations (20.4 million appointments per year), could be safely managed by a community pharmacist. Offering these patients a formal referral to, and appointment with, a community pharmacist can allow them to be seen more quickly than if they waited for a GP appointment. Appointment time freed up can be used to see patients with more complex medical needs. There is good evidence that advice provided by community pharmacists about minor illness results in the same outcome as if the patient went to see their GP or attended an emergency department. In my own area, we have definitely seen an increase in consultation rates for minor illnesses in the last few months. So many patients dont realise that a pharmacist can supply many of the same medications for minor illness they would get on prescription from a GP. Nor do they know that pharmacists are highly trained to deal with minor illnesses. As a consequence, receptionists often find themselves pushing against an open door when they explain to the patient that they will usually be able to get a consultation much more quickly with a pharmacist than with a GP. When I speak to patients who have previously used CPCS, almost without exception they sing its praises. It really has made a positive difference to receptionists to have another service to offer patients, reducing the need to tell patients to call back.How it works When a patient with minor illness symptoms contacts their GP practice requesting an appointment, the care navigator or receptionist can refer them directly to a local pharmacist of their choice. Brief structured symptom checklists can help identify patients who can be safely referred. With the patient’s consent, the practice team can send an electronic referral message to the pharmacy the patient has chosen, to support safe follow up and audit.Following the referral, the patient can be advised to contact the pharmacy and sent details of their referral electronically. If they do not make contact, the pharmacist will contact the patient within 12 hours by phone and either carry out the consultation by telephone or arrange a video consultation or for the patient to attend the pharmacy, if appropriate. Somerset CCG is in the early stages of embedding CPCS across the whole county using local services (currently known as Patient Access Connect), which provides an integrated triage tool and automated referral to any participating pharmacy. It is already seeing huge success. Between June and September 2021, around 2,500 patients were successfully referred for a personal consultation with a community pharmacist of their choice.For Ed Garvey, who is part of the CCG’s primary care team, having the option to assess a patient referral using a clinically-designed assessment tool means that “receptionists and practice teams have the added confidence that they can refer to this tool when they need some reassurance.”GP Dr Jeremy Imms has remarked on the “huge cost saving to the practice, as each referral is saving a clinician’s appointment. By broadening access to the wider primary care, patients are getting a better service and we are taking a little bit of pressure out of GP surgeries.” For Michael Lennox, a community pharmacist in Somerset, the CPCS service is “beginning to make a discernible difference in channel shift. We are convinced that our partnership-working philosophy has enabled us to achieve at-pace and best-in-class practical delivery.” Implementing the CPCSPractices can start referring into the CPCS straight away, as soon as the secure electronic referral process has been agreed with local community pharmacies. There is lots of support available through your local implementation lead or on FutureNHS. EMIS practices wishing to use local services can contact their local EMIS team.

  • ANJALI 298 Hrs 18 Min 53 Sec

    WHO is working with countries and partners to understand the potential impact of this variant on our existing preventive measures, including vaccines. Studies are ongoing in laboratories looking at how the existing COVID-19 vaccines can perform against the variant. But we are also looking at the epidemiology and at the vaccination status of people who are infected with the Omicron variant. Here in the European Region, we have rapidly set up a dedicated team within IMST to respond to the emerging challenge of Omicron. This team will: identify implications for the European Region adjust recommendations to potential scenarios collect data from Member States on cases of B.1.1.529 (Omicron) develop key messages for public communications. WHO recommends that the countries of the Region accelerate vaccination against COVID-19 and intensify preventive measures to suppress transmission of all variants. This includes: continuing to vaccinate, targeting those most at risk, including with booster doses for eligible groups; increasing adherence of all individuals to protective measures; putting in place social measures to prevent crowding and people gathering in confined spaces; activating and prioritizing case investigation and contact tracing for any COVID-19 cases, including Omicron; enhancing testing (and sequencing) and making it available freely to people with symptoms; identifying surge capacity in health systems. In addition, they should report cases and clusters of COVID-19 and its variants to WHO and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) in a timely manner, to ensure we have an up-to-date picture and responses can be effective. Lockdowns should only be used as a last resort as they are very costly measures, and if a government decides to implement such stringent restrictions, they should be as targeted as possible with the time used to build up public health capacities. What we know is that the variant has been spreading quite quickly in one province of South Africa and cases have also been reported in other parts of the world, including in the European Region. We are likely to see more Omicron cases being reported by countries over the days and weeks to come, as countries begin to look for it more. We are being cautious, by calling attention to this new variant of concern, but need to take the time to see how it plays out in the world. WHO is joining hands with researchers in South Africa and around the world who are conducting studies to better understand many aspects of Omicron, and will continue to share the findings of these studies as they become available. At the same time, we must not forget that we are already dealing with a highly transmissible variant – the Delta variant – which accounts for almost all cases in our region. Preventing the transmission of Delta should remain our priority at this stage.

  • PRIYANKA 298 Hrs 23 Min 19 Sec

    With seven countries in South-East Asia Region confirming cases of the new COVID-19 variant Omicron, the World Health Organization today emphasized on urgent scale up of public health and social measures to curtail its further spread. “Countries can – and must – prevent the spread of Omicron with the proven health and social measures. Our focus must continue to be to protect the least protected and those at high risk,” said Dr Poonam Khetrapal Singh, Regional Director, WHO South-East Asia Region. The overall threat posed by Omicron largely depends on three key questions – its transmissibility; how well the vaccines and prior SARS-CoV-2 infection protect against it, and how virulent the variant is as compared to other variants. From what we know so far, Omicron appears to spread faster than the Delta variant which has been attributed to the surge in cases across the world in the last several months, the Regional Director said. Emerging data from South Africa suggests increased risk of re-infection with Omicron, she said, adding that there is still limited data on the clinical severity associated with Omicron. Further information is needed to fully understand the clinical picture of those infected with Omicron. We expect more information in the coming weeks. Omicron should not be dismissed as mild, the Regional Director said, adding that even if it does cause less severe disease, the sheer number of cases could once again overwhelm health systems. Hence, health care capacity including ICU beds, oxygen availability, adequate health care staff and surge capacity need to be reviewed and strengthened at all levels. “We must continue to do it all. Protect yourself and protect each other. Get vaccinated, wear a mask, keep a distance, open windows, clean your hands and cough and sneeze safely. Continue to take all precautions even after taking vaccine doses,” the Regional Director said. On the impact of the new variant on vaccines, Dr Khetrapal Singh said preliminary data suggests that that vaccines may likely have reduced effectiveness against infections by the Omicron variant. However, studies are underway to better understand the extent to which Omicron may evade vaccine and/or infection derived immunity and the extent to which current vaccines continue to protect against severe disease and death associated with Omicron. Globally, the pandemic is driven by the Delta variant, against which the vaccines continue to provide a robust level of protection from severe disease, hospitalization, and death. Hence, our efforts to scale-up vaccination coverage must continue.Omicron should not be dismissed as mild, the Regional Director said, adding that even if it does cause less severe disease, the sheer number of cases could once again overwhelm health systems. Hence, health care capacity including ICU beds, oxygen availability, adequate health care staff and surge capacity need to be reviewed and strengthened at all levels. “We must continue to do it all. Protect yourself and protect each other. Get vaccinated, wear a mask, keep a distance, open windows, clean your hands and cough and sneeze safely. Continue to take all precautions even after taking vaccine doses,” the Regional Director said. On the impact of the new variant on vaccines, Dr Khetrapal Singh said preliminary data suggests that that vaccines may likely have reduced effectiveness against infections by the Omicron variant. However, studies are underway to better understand the extent to which Omicron may evade vaccine and/or infection derived immunity and the extent to which current vaccines continue to protect against severe disease and death associated with Omicron. Globally, the pandemic is driven by the Delta variant, against which the vaccines continue to provide a robust level of protection from severe disease, hospitalization, and death. Hence, our efforts to scale-up vaccination coverage must continue. “Vaccines are an important tool in our fight against the pandemic, but, as we

  • SHEFALI SINGH 298 Hrs 24 Min 36 Sec

    The Omicron variant of COVID-19 has been called a variant of concern by WHO based on the evidence that it has several mutations that may have an impact on how it behaves. There is still substantial uncertainty regarding Omicron and a lot of research underway to evaluate its transmissibility, severity and reinfection risk. When a virus is circulating widely and causing numerous infections, the likelihood of the virus mutating increases. The more opportunities a virus has to spread, the more opportunities it has to undergo changes. New variants like Omicron are a reminder that the COVID-19 pandemic is far from over. It is therefore essential that people get the vaccine when available to them and continue to follow existing advice on preventing the spread of the virus, including physical distancing, wearing masks, regular handwashing and keeping indoor areas well ventilated. It is also crucial that vaccines and other public health measures are accessible everywhere. Vaccine inequity leaves lower income countries – many of them in Africa – at the mercy of COVID-19. Well-supplied countries must urgently deliver the doses they promised. The Omicron variant has now been detected in many countries around the world. WHO reports that Omicron is probably in most countries, even if it hasn’t been detected yet. Early findings suggest that Omicron might be less severe than the Delta variant, but more data is needed and WHO warns that it should not be dismissed as “mild”. Studies are ongoing and this information will be updated as it becomes available. It is important to remember that all variants of COVID-19 can cause severe disease or death, including the Delta variant that is still dominant worldwide, which is why preventing the spread of the virus and reducing your risk of exposure to the virus is so important.Omicron is spreading more quickly than other variants. Based on the information available, WHO believes it is likely that Omicron will outpace the Delta variant where there is COVID-19 transmission in the community. However, being vaccinated and taking precautions such as avoiding crowded spaces, keeping your distance from others and wearing a mask are critical in helping to prevent the spread of COVID-19, and we know these actions have been effective against other variants. Researchers are looking into any potential impact the Omicron variant has on the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines. Information is still limited, but there may be a small reduction in the effectiveness of vaccines against severe illness and death, and a decline in preventing mild disease and infection. However, WHO reports that so far it looks like the currently available vaccines offer significant protection against severe disease and death. It is also important to be vaccinated to protect against the other widely circulating variants, such as the Delta one. When it’s your turn, make sure to get vaccinated. If your vaccination involves two doses, it’s important to receive both in order to have the maximum protection.

  • PRIYA KUMARI 298 Hrs 25 Min 42 Sec

    Prevention is better than cure The new virus Omicron originated from South Africa. The fact that the European countries and America have not been able to help African countries with vaccine doses. Many countries in Europe have banned flights to and from South Africa. Not surprisingly, South Africa condemned such partisan attitudes of the developed countries. Our own Dr Guleria of the AIIMS has stated that the Omicron virus is less lethal than Delta 1.1.517. So I don’t think there is any need to get panicky. Nevertheless, the previous precautions of hand washing, wearing mask and avoiding large gatherings should be observed strictly. Both the government and social activists need to make people aware of the coming contagion. Vaccination drive should be expedited and vaccination hesitancy should be avoided to make people aware of the same. As the maxim goes prevention is better than cure. Although the previous wave of the Covid-19 pandemic has started losing its momentum and the number of positive cases and fatalities has been on the decline in the recent past, the third Covid wave with a more deadly Omicron mutation that is slated to hit the country by early 2022 has raised fresh concerns. As many nations across the world have witnessed a sudden spike in infections, the Central government has issued new instructions to the states to make proper preparations to deal with the impending danger in the wake of holiday season and the upcoming Assembly elections in UP, Punjab and elsewhere. But it is ironical that the ruling dispensation has failed miserably to enforce strict implementation of the health protocols in the past, courtesy its ubiquitous apathetic and indifferent attitude. As usual, people are again least concerned about wearing masks, sanitising hands, maintaining social and physical distancing and avoiding crowded places. Instead of being grossly engaged in furthering its electoral gains, the Congress-led government should spare time to make orchestrated plans to prevent the spread of the virus that has the potential to cause a humongous loss of human lives. While the district administration should ramp-up vaccination drive and put necessary curbs on public gatherings, all parties should ensure that people do not violate the Covid safety norms at political rallies. Learning lessons from the past experience, the health authorities should update its medical infrastructure to ensure that public hospitals and other healthcare facilities are not overwhelmed. Being largely and thickly populated, India is still in the throes of a pandemic. Only a correct public behaviour and a stringent governmental action will secure the vulnerable lives. Cases spreading like wildfire Omicron, the latest variant of Covid, is more lethal and contagious, both the district administration and the citizens need to be more vigilant and well-prepared to face the challenge. WHO, in its latest briefing, has warned the member nations that Omicron will likely outpace Delta but with the hopeful assurance that new variant of concern could be detected with the existing system of clinical testing and can be well-treated with the prevailing set of medical strategies. Presently, Omicron cases in India increasing rapidly spreading across the globe, preparedness to meet the challenge cannot be overlooked under any circumstances. Given the national data of vaccination coverage to adult population as 55% with both doses and 85% with a single shot, immediate task of local administration is to achieve 100% target of adult inoculation within specified time frame. In addition to different and comprehensive strategies to be kept in place at the national and state levels, the immediate task with the Centre is to be ready with all necessary preparations required to administer booster dose to all those adults who are fully jabbed. The people in general must continue adopting Covid-appropriate behavior such as wearing prescribed masks, avoiding public gatherings, maintaining physical distance, keeping hands occasionally sterilised and taking necessary steps to maintain good health standards to boost immunity and personal hygiene Wear masks at all times The foremost thing which all must do to prevent spread of virus is to wear masks at all times and all places while going out from home. Secondly, the district administration must encourage and enforce social distancing at all places. Thirdly, awareness about bane effects of virus should be created. Last, but not the least the district administration should try to prevent massive gatherings in rallies by any one.

  • TANNU 298 Hrs 25 Min 49 Sec

    With seven countries in South-East Asia Region confirming cases of the new COVID-19 variant Omicron, the World Health Organization today emphasized on urgent scale up of public health and social measures to curtail its further spread. “Countries can – and must – prevent the spread of Omicron with the proven health and social measures. Our focus must continue to be to protect the least protected and those at high risk,” said Dr Poonam Khetrapal Singh, Regional Director, WHO South-East Asia Region. The overall threat posed by Omicron largely depends on three key questions – its transmissibility; how well the vaccines and prior SARS-CoV-2 infection protect against it, and how virulent the variant is as compared to other variants. From what we know so far, Omicron appears to spread faster than the Delta variant which has been attributed to the surge in cases across the world in the last several months, the Regional Director said. Emerging data from South Africa suggests increased risk of re-infection with Omicron, she said, adding that there is still limited data on the clinical severity associated with Omicron. Further information is needed to fully understand the clinical picture of those infected with Omicron. We expect more information in the coming weeks. Omicron should not be dismissed as mild, the Regional Director said, adding that even if it does cause less severe disease, the sheer number of cases could once again overwhelm health systems. Hence, health care capacity including ICU beds, oxygen availability, adequate health care staff and surge capacity need to be reviewed and strengthened at all levels. “We must continue to do it all. Protect yourself and protect each other. Get vaccinated, wear a mask, keep a distance, open windows, clean your hands and cough and sneeze safely. Continue to take all precautions even after taking vaccine doses,” the Regional Director said. On the impact of the new variant on vaccines, Dr Khetrapal Singh said preliminary data suggests that that vaccines may likely have reduced effectiveness against infections by the Omicron variant. However, studies are underway to better understand the extent to which Omicron may evade vaccine and/or infection derived immunity and the extent to which current vaccines continue to protect against severe disease and death associated with Omicron. Globally, the pandemic is driven by the Delta variant, against which the vaccines continue to provide a robust level of protection from severe disease, hospitalization, and death. Hence, our efforts to scale-up vaccination coverage must continue.

  • PARUL 298 Hrs 28 Min 24 Sec

    On 26 November, WHO’s Technical Advisory Group on SARS-CoV-2 Virus Evolution (TAG-VE) designated the B.1.1.529 variant, first reported by South Africa 2 days earlier, as a variant of concern, named Omicron. Key things to know The more COVID-19 circulates, the more opportunities the virus has to change, and the more new mutations we can expect to see; Delta and Omicron are examples of that. Omicron is a variant of concern because it has dozens of mutations that can affect the way it behaves. Due to this mutation profile, it needs to be further investigated for its potential impacts. While we wait to learn more about Omicron, Delta dominates transmission in the WHO European Region, and responding to it should remain our priority at this stage. Current vaccines offer protection against severe disease and death from COVID-19 variants, including Delta. While evidence is still emerging, we expect current vaccines should also protect against severe disease from the Omicron variant. The most important thing people can do is to stop the virus at its source by completing their vaccine series as soon as possible and continuing to protect themselves with all other proven preventive measures. We spoke to Dr Richard Pebody, who leads the High-threat Pathogen team and the Surveillance and Laboratory pillar of the COVID-19 Incident Support Management Team (IMST) at WHO/Europe to find out more about the variant, why it is of concern and what can be done to control it. Why is Omicron a variant of concern? All viruses, including the COVID-19 virus, change over time and this is a natural phenomenon. However, some mutations or combinations of mutations may change the way the virus behaves. Omicron is of concern because it has a large number of mutations, some of which have been associated with potential increased transmissibility and possible immune escape – by this we mean, there is a chance people may get infected by it even if they have developed some natural immunity from previous COVID-19 infection, or following COVID-19 vaccination. At the same time, there are mutations that have never been documented before. Because of this, the Omicron variant needs to be investigated for us to have a better understanding of its potential impacts. When does WHO designate a variant of concern? WHO will designate a variant of concern when the virus in question has been demonstrated to be associated with 1 or more of the following changes, at a degree of global public health significance: an increase in transmissibility or detrimental change in COVID-19 epidemiology; an increase in virulence or change in clinical disease presentation; a decrease in effectiveness of public health and social measures or available diagnostics, vaccines and therapeutics.

  • SEEMA YADAV 298 Hrs 32 Min 59 Sec

    India is currently battling the third wave of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), triggered by the high infectious omicron variant. Medical experts have warned that past mistakes, especially regarding treatment, must not be repeated. Hydroxychloroquine, convalescent plasma therapy, ivermectin, favipiravir, doxycycline and antibiotics were widely used in the first two COVID-19 waves in India. Their efficacy was questioned at the time. But it is now known for sure that none of these have any role in the treatment for patients infected by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. “In the first two waves, it was correct to use certain therapies as experimentation because we wanted to save lives. The key thing to remember is that we are better informed about COVID-19 treatment protocols today than ever before,” Chandrakant Lahariya, a public health analyst and epidemiologist, told Down To Earth (DTE). Last month, the World Health Organization (WHO) officially recommended against the use of convalescent plasma therapy, citing high uncertainty of outcome and logistical concerns. “Despite its initial promise, current evidence shows that it does not improve survival nor reduce the need for mechanical ventilation and it is costly and time-consuming to administer,” WHO noted. The All India Institute of Medical Sciences-Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) COVID-19 National Task Force and the Union health ministry had dropped the treatment in early 2021. “Much of the treatment, especially during the second wave, was influenced by the demand of patients. There was a significant rise in convalescent plasma therapy, ivermectin and other such treatments being used. Our approach should be guided by clinical protocol and perceived benefit, not a patient’s demand,” Lahariya said. COVID-19 treatment has become very simplistic over the past two years. A majority of current patients can be treated in home isolation, given a history of past infection, vaccination and the fact that omicron likely causes milder infection than its predecessor. Pradeep Rangappa, an intensive case physician and member of Karnataka’s Critical Care Support System Team (CCST) for COVID-19, detailed a four-step approach for treatment, depending on the severity of disease. Antivirals such as Remdesivir, Molnupiravir and Paxlovid — which is not yet available in India — are recommended in the early phase of a viral infection. This is primarily done to prevent further progression of the disease.“Both Remdesivir and Molnupiravir have a similar mechanism where they create viral errors to block replication of the virus to prevent the viral load from increasing,” Rangappa said. However, experts have cautioned against the use of Molnupiravir. While it has been approved for use by the Drugs Controller General of India, the ICMR has refrained from including it in its national COVID-19 treatment protocol, citing safety concerns. “Molnupiravir’s clinical trials were done in an unvaccinated population, the majority of which had no past infection. This is no longer accurate for the current Indian population where its benefits are unknown and side-effects are very high. Excessive use based on demand and prescription is a real risk in India and should be avoided,” Lahariya said. Reports have revealed that despite ICMR’s warning about the side effects of Molnupiravir such as mutagenicity, muscle, bone damage and the need for three months of contraceptive for women because it may affect the child, its demand has increased.

  • ANANYA ANAND 298 Hrs 43 Min 52 Sec

    India has reported over 200 cases of the highly infectious Omicron variant and given that there were no cases when the month began, this has put the Centre in a high state of alert. An unmistakable foreboding was writ large in a letter by the Union Health Secretary to the Chief Secretaries of States and Union Territories on Tuesday that has asked them to be prepared for the worst. It said that Omicron was at least “three times more transmissible” than the Delta variant, and therefore “greater foresight, data analysis, dynamic decision-making, strict and prompt containment action” were required at the local and district levels. It also underlined two specific parameters which States have to be vigilant about: a test positivity of 10% or more in the last week and bed occupancy crossing 40% or more on oxygen-supported or intensive care units. There were echoes in the letter of the days when India was under a complete lockdown — it exhorted district officials, when required, to impose night curfew, strictly regulate large gatherings, curtail numbers in marriages and funerals, and restrict numbers in offices, industries and public transport. It also directed pre-emptive action. Maharashtra and Delhi have reported the highest number of cases of Omicron, followed by Telangana, Karnataka, Rajasthan, Kerala and Gujarat. India’s daily case count has ebbed and has remained well below 10,000 for most of the month — a first since May 2020; close to 90% of the adult population has been vaccinated with at least one dose. From the numbers alone, India is in a much better position than from last year or even as recently as this summer when the devastating second wave struck a body blow. However, the consternation in the Centre appears to derive from the experience of the last two years when waves in Europe and the United States were harbingers of havoc in India. While last year it appeared that vaccines would be the world’s passport out of the pandemic, it now seems that even a third dose is inadequate. India is overwhelmingly dependent on a single vaccine in spite of two being produced here; none of the mRNA vaccines is available. Drug regulators are yet to clear vaccines for children and booster doses partly out of concerns that this may trigger a shortfall. A good 40% of adults — and they are still the most vulnerable to severe disease — are yet to be fully vaccinated. Crowds and public mingling are at pre-pandemic levels and the coming months will see huge crowds as part of election campaigning. The true impact of Omicron will be known over the next few weeks but the Centre must continue to strike the gong of caution while facilitating greater availability of essential medicines, hospital beds and vaccines.

  • MS. GAYATREE MEENA 321 Hrs 32 Min 59 Sec

    #GAYTREE MEENA #JV-U/19/3559 #B.Sc {hons} agriculture 3rd year , 5th sem #jayoti vidyapeeth women;s university ,jaipur Essay on Farmer Adoption Programme (Agriculture Mentorship Programme (AMP) /Veterinary Health & Fodder Care) Determinants of farmers adoption of management-based strategies for infectious disease prevention and control ;- ABSTRACT The prevention and control of endemic pathogens within and between farms often depends on the adoption of best management practices. However, farmers regularly do not adopt recommended measures or do not enroll in voluntary disease control programs. This indicates that a more comprehensive understanding of the influences and extension tools that affect farmers management decisions is necessary. Based on a review of relevant published literature, we developed recommendations to support policy-makers, industry representatives, researchers, veterinarians, and other stakeholders when motivating farmers to adopt best management practices, and to facilitate the development and implementation of voluntary prevention and control programs for livestock diseases. Farmers will make management decisions based on their unique circumstances, agricultural contexts, beliefs, and goals. Providing them with rational but universal arguments might not always be sufficient to motivate on-farm change. Implementation of recommended management practices is more likely if farmers acknowledge the existence of a problem and their responsibility to take action. The perceived feasibility and effectiveness of the recommended management strategy and sufficient technical knowledge further increase the likelihood of adequate adoption. Farmers will also weigh the expected advantages of a proposed change against the expected disadvantages, and these considerations often include internal drivers such as pride or the desire to conform with perceived standards. Extension tools and farmers social referents (e.g., veterinarians, peers) not only provide technical information but also influence these standards. Whereas mass media have the potential to deliver information to a broad audience, more personal approaches such as participatory group learning or individual communication with farm advisors can enable the tailoring of recommendations to farmers situations. Approaches that appeal to farmers internal motivators or that unconsciously elicit the desired behavior will increase the success of the intervention. Collaboration among stakeholders, assisted by social scientists and communication specialists, is necessary to provide a context that facilitates on-farm change and transfers consistent messages across extension tools in the most effective way. INTRODUCTION Livestock farmers worldwide face endemic disease challenges that threaten animal health and welfare. These diseases can have a substantial economic impact on individual enterprises and on the farming industry as a whole (Wierup, 2012). Therefore, although the relevance of specific diseases might vary by country, the prevention and eradication of infectious animal diseases [i.e., diseases that can be spread directly or indirectly between animals (and potentially to humans)] has become an increasing focus for many nations. Despite huge advances in the development of livestock vaccines and treatment options, the implementation of best management practices is still the most effective way to prevent and control many infectious diseases on farms. Farmers are encouraged to implement specific strategies to mitigate the risk of disease transmission, not only for the sake of their animals health and welfare, but also to protect humans from zoonotic pathogens (OIE Animal Production Food Safety Working Group, 2006). However, poor on-farm adoption of recommendations to enhance general biosecurity practices, or of strategies to decrease transmission of specific diseases, is common (Bell et al., 2009; Brennan and Christley, 2013; Sayers et al., 2013). Furthermore, participation rates in voluntary disease prevention and control programs are often below 30% (Hoe and Ruegg, 2006; Hop et al., 2011; Nielsen, 2011). These experiences suggest that the methods used to motivate participation in control programs and adoption of recommended practices have been suboptimal. Agricultural extension refers to activities and communication channels that facilitate changes in farmer knowledge, attitudes, and behavior by synthesizing, exchanging, and applying information (Black, 2000; Anderson and Feder, 2004). Although agricultural extension differs depending on the context, traditional “top-down” tools such as newsletters or magazines are often the primary routes of knowledge transfer, and they assume that farmers make decisions based purely on scientific rationale (Roche, 2014). However, it is widely accepted that farmers decision-making varies, influenced by factors that are not solely based on policy, economic considerations, or rational judgment (Edwards-Jones, 2006; Noordhuizen et al., 2008b). Some variability can be explained by individual farmer traits (e.g., personality, attitudes, beliefs, intentions, values, skills, and knowledge). Remarkably, these socio-psychological variables often explain more variation in farm performance than farmers measurable management practices (Bigras-Poulin et al., 1985; van den Borne et al., 2014). To account for these factors, different theoretical frameworks have been applied in the agricultural context. Two of the frameworks most commonly used to investigate the effects of socio-psychological variables on farmers decision-making and better understand farmer behavior, are the Health Belief Model (Janz and Becker, 1984) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991). In addition to socio-psychological factors, external influences such as input from social referents (e.g., herd veterinarians, colleagues, or family) and agricultural extension conduits (e.g., printed media or discussion groups) can also affect farmers management decisions (Ritter et al., 2015; Roche et al., 2015). The objective of this narrative review was to describe the available information on (1) the factors that contribute to farmers adoption of recommended management strategies; and (2) the influence of social referents and extension tools on farmers management decisions. Our focus was farmer behavior related to improving animal health, but where applicable, we have included a selection of findings on animal welfare to add relevant information from other contexts. Furthermore, the scope of this review was voluntary management-based prevention and control of endemic infectious livestock diseases (i.e., farmers decision-making in the absence of compulsive regulations) on commercial farms in economically developed countries. To meet the second objective, we discussed the main communication channels used to provide information and support farmers in adopting recommended management practices. Based on the evidence as it pertains to the delineated scope, we provide recommendations to policy-makers, industry representatives, researchers, veterinarians, and other stakeholders to facilitate the adoption of on-farm management practices and assist in the development and implementation of voluntary control programs for endemic infectious livestock diseases. SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL INFLUENCES Every farmer has their own unique combination of demographic factors (e.g., age, sex, education), personality, previous experiences, routines, and goals, as well as economic, cultural, and family influences (Wilson et al., 2015; Frössling and Nöremark, 2016). These individual characteristics contribute to farmers views about animal health, prevention and control strategies, and influence their decision-making (Figure 1). Not every management decision a farmer makes might appear logical from an outside perspective (Kristensen and Jakobsen, 2011a). An understanding of a farmers mindset and the specific factors that combine to influence that mindset is crucial for motivating them to change. The socio-psychological influences on farmers adoption of recommended management practices described in the first part of the review were considered the most relevant and were often derived from constructs described in the Health Belief Model or the Theory of Planned Behavior (Figure 1). It is particularly important to consider these factors when formulating voluntary prevention and control programs, and we have provided related recommendations (Table 1, Table 2, Table 3, Table 4). However, interventions to change farmer behavior must acknowledge that farmers are not a homogeneous group and cannot be convinced by relying only on educational arguments (Jansen et al., 2010b,c). Furthermore, farmers context (e.g., laws and regulations, market prices, or quality programs) can affect decision-making by inhibiting or facilitating the recommended management changes. Because of the influence of farmers internal logic and context on their decision-making, it is impossible to provide a “one-size-fits-all” solution (Kristensen and Jakobsen, 2011a).

  • KOMAL MEENA 321 Hrs 34 Min 17 Sec

    #KOMAL MEENA #JV-U/19/3728 #B.Sc {hons} agriculture 3rd year , 5th sem #jayoti vidyapeeth women;s university ,jaipur Essay on Farmer Adoption Programme (Agriculture Mentorship Programme (AMP) /Veterinary Health & Fodder Care) Determinants of farmers adoption of management-based strategies for infectious disease prevention and control ;- ABSTRACT The prevention and control of endemic pathogens within and between farms often depends on the adoption of best management practices. However, farmers regularly do not adopt recommended measures or do not enroll in voluntary disease control programs. This indicates that a more comprehensive understanding of the influences and extension tools that affect farmers management decisions is necessary. Based on a review of relevant published literature, we developed recommendations to support policy-makers, industry representatives, researchers, veterinarians, and other stakeholders when motivating farmers to adopt best management practices, and to facilitate the development and implementation of voluntary prevention and control programs for livestock diseases. Farmers will make management decisions based on their unique circumstances, agricultural contexts, beliefs, and goals. Providing them with rational but universal arguments might not always be sufficient to motivate on-farm change. Implementation of recommended management practices is more likely if farmers acknowledge the existence of a problem and their responsibility to take action. The perceived feasibility and effectiveness of the recommended management strategy and sufficient technical knowledge further increase the likelihood of adequate adoption. Farmers will also weigh the expected advantages of a proposed change against the expected disadvantages, and these considerations often include internal drivers such as pride or the desire to conform with perceived standards. Extension tools and farmers social referents (e.g., veterinarians, peers) not only provide technical information but also influence these standards. Whereas mass media have the potential to deliver information to a broad audience, more personal approaches such as participatory group learning or individual communication with farm advisors can enable the tailoring of recommendations to farmers situations. Approaches that appeal to farmers internal motivators or that unconsciously elicit the desired behavior will increase the success of the intervention. Collaboration among stakeholders, assisted by social scientists and communication specialists, is necessary to provide a context that facilitates on-farm change and transfers consistent messages across extension tools in the most effective way. INTRODUCTION Livestock farmers worldwide face endemic disease challenges that threaten animal health and welfare. These diseases can have a substantial economic impact on individual enterprises and on the farming industry as a whole (Wierup, 2012). Therefore, although the relevance of specific diseases might vary by country, the prevention and eradication of infectious animal diseases [i.e., diseases that can be spread directly or indirectly between animals (and potentially to humans)] has become an increasing focus for many nations. Despite huge advances in the development of livestock vaccines and treatment options, the implementation of best management practices is still the most effective way to prevent and control many infectious diseases on farms. Farmers are encouraged to implement specific strategies to mitigate the risk of disease transmission, not only for the sake of their animals health and welfare, but also to protect humans from zoonotic pathogens (OIE Animal Production Food Safety Working Group, 2006). However, poor on-farm adoption of recommendations to enhance general biosecurity practices, or of strategies to decrease transmission of specific diseases, is common (Bell et al., 2009; Brennan and Christley, 2013; Sayers et al., 2013). Furthermore, participation rates in voluntary disease prevention and control programs are often below 30% (Hoe and Ruegg, 2006; Hop et al., 2011; Nielsen, 2011). These experiences suggest that the methods used to motivate participation in control programs and adoption of recommended practices have been suboptimal. Agricultural extension refers to activities and communication channels that facilitate changes in farmer knowledge, attitudes, and behavior by synthesizing, exchanging, and applying information (Black, 2000; Anderson and Feder, 2004). Although agricultural extension differs depending on the context, traditional “top-down” tools such as newsletters or magazines are often the primary routes of knowledge transfer, and they assume that farmers make decisions based purely on scientific rationale (Roche, 2014). However, it is widely accepted that farmers decision-making varies, influenced by factors that are not solely based on policy, economic considerations, or rational judgment (Edwards-Jones, 2006; Noordhuizen et al., 2008b). Some variability can be explained by individual farmer traits (e.g., personality, attitudes, beliefs, intentions, values, skills, and knowledge). Remarkably, these socio-psychological variables often explain more variation in farm performance than farmers measurable management practices (Bigras-Poulin et al., 1985; van den Borne et al., 2014). To account for these factors, different theoretical frameworks have been applied in the agricultural context. Two of the frameworks most commonly used to investigate the effects of socio-psychological variables on farmers decision-making and better understand farmer behavior, are the Health Belief Model (Janz and Becker, 1984) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991). In addition to socio-psychological factors, external influences such as input from social referents (e.g., herd veterinarians, colleagues, or family) and agricultural extension conduits (e.g., printed media or discussion groups) can also affect farmers management decisions (Ritter et al., 2015; Roche et al., 2015). The objective of this narrative review was to describe the available information on (1) the factors that contribute to farmers adoption of recommended management strategies; and (2) the influence of social referents and extension tools on farmers management decisions. Our focus was farmer behavior related to improving animal health, but where applicable, we have included a selection of findings on animal welfare to add relevant information from other contexts. Furthermore, the scope of this review was voluntary management-based prevention and control of endemic infectious livestock diseases (i.e., farmers decision-making in the absence of compulsive regulations) on commercial farms in economically developed countries. To meet the second objective, we discussed the main communication channels used to provide information and support farmers in adopting recommended management practices. Based on the evidence as it pertains to the delineated scope, we provide recommendations to policy-makers, industry representatives, researchers, veterinarians, and other stakeholders to facilitate the adoption of on-farm management practices and assist in the development and implementation of voluntary control programs for endemic infectious livestock diseases. SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL INFLUENCES Every farmer has their own unique combination of demographic factors (e.g., age, sex, education), personality, previous experiences, routines, and goals, as well as economic, cultural, and family influences (Wilson et al., 2015; Frössling and Nöremark, 2016). These individual characteristics contribute to farmers views about animal health, prevention and control strategies, and influence their decision-making (Figure 1). Not every management decision a farmer makes might appear logical from an outside perspective (Kristensen and Jakobsen, 2011a). An understanding of a farmers mindset and the specific factors that combine to influence that mindset is crucial for motivating them to change. The socio-psychological influences on farmers adoption of recommended management practices described in the first part of the review were considered the most relevant and were often derived from constructs described in the Health Belief Model or the Theory of Planned Behavior (Figure 1). It is particularly important to consider these factors when formulating voluntary prevention and control programs, and we have provided related recommendations (Table 1, Table 2, Table 3, Table 4). However, interventions to change farmer behavior must acknowledge that farmers are not a homogeneous group and cannot be convinced by relying only on educational arguments (Jansen et al., 2010b,c). Furthermore, farmers context (e.g., laws and regulations, market prices, or quality programs) can affect decision-making by inhibiting or facilitating the recommended management changes. Because of the influence of farmers internal logic and context on their decision-making, it is impossible to provide a “one-size-fits-all” solution (Kristensen and Jakobsen, 2011a). Problem Awareness and Perception of Responsibility