Jv Mission CDA

E Physio by Physiotherapy & Diagnostics

E Physio by Physiotherapy & Diagnostics BPT/ DPT III Sem , BPT/ DPT IV Sem, DPT V Sem , DPT VI Sem

  • Snow
    Like 3     Comment

    E Physio by Physiotherapy & Diagnostics BPT/ DPT III Sem , BPT/ DPT IV Sem, DPT V Sem , DPT VI Sem
All Comments
    
Showing 56 Submission(s)
  • GIRI DEEPIKA VIRENDRA 859 Hrs 20 Min 34 Sec

    #GiriDeepika(jv-d/18/2810) DPT 5th semester #JayotiVidyapeethWomensUniversity #CDAactivity TENDINITIS Definition: Tendinitis is inflammation or irritation of a tendon — the thick fibrous cords that attach muscle to bone. The condition causes pain and tenderness just outside a joint Some common names for various tendinitis problems are: • Tennis elbow • Golfers elbow • Pitchers shoulder • Swimmers shoulder • Jumpers knee Causes • Repetitive movements • Movements over and over Tendinitis can also result from: • injury • aging • certain diseases, such as diabetes or rheumatoid arthritis • certain antibiotics (quinolones such as Levaquin) Symptoms • Pain often described as a dull ache, especially when moving the affected limb or joint • Tenderness • Mild swelling Diagnosis Physical examination: • recent or past injuries to the area in pain • your past and present sports and physical activities Further test: • X-ray • Ultrasound • MRI Treatment The goals of tendinitis treatment are to relieve your pain and reduce inflammation. -rest, icing and over-the-counter pain relievers. Medications: • Pain relievers • Corticosteroids • Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) Surgical procedures: • Dry needling • Ultrasonic treatment. PT Management: • Acute injury o Range of motion activities o Splinting • Chronic Injury o Eccentric Exercises o Shock wave o Active release therapy PRIYAM SINGH (JV-i/18/2517) GIRI DEEPIKA (JV-d/18/2810) DPT 5th Semester

  • PRIYAM SINGH 859 Hrs 23 Min 16 Sec

    #priyamsingh (jv-i/18/2517) dpt5thsem #jayotividyapeethwomensuniversity #CDAactivity TENDINITIS Definition: Tendinitis is inflammation or irritation of a tendon — the thick fibrous cords that attach muscle to bone. The condition causes pain and tenderness just outside a joint Some common names for various tendinitis problems are: • Tennis elbow • Golfers elbow • Pitchers shoulder • Swimmers shoulder • Jumpers knee Causes • Repetitive movements • Movements over and over Tendinitis can also result from: • injury • aging • certain diseases, such as diabetes or rheumatoid arthritis • certain antibiotics (quinolones such as Levaquin) Symptoms • Pain often described as a dull ache, especially when moving the affected limb or joint • Tenderness • Mild swelling Diagnosis Physical examination: • recent or past injuries to the area in pain • your past and present sports and physical activities Further test: • X-ray • Ultrasound • MRI Treatment The goals of tendinitis treatment are to relieve your pain and reduce inflammation. -rest, icing and over-the-counter pain relievers. Medications: • Pain relievers • Corticosteroids • Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) Surgical procedures: • Dry needling • Ultrasonic treatment. PT Management: • Acute injury o Range of motion activities o Splinting • Chronic Injury o Eccentric Exercises o Shock wave o Active release therapy PRIYAM SINGH (JV-i/18/2517) GIRI DEEPIKA (JV-d/18/2810) DPT 5th Semester

  • SHUBHANSHI MISHRA 859 Hrs 32 Min 32 Sec

    SHUBHANSHI MISHRA PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS Introduction- Pulmonary TB is a bacterial infection of the lungs that can cause a range of symptoms, including chest pain, breathlessness, and severe coughing. Pulmonary TB can be life-threatening if a person does not receive treatment. People with active TB can spread the bacteria through the air. Causes Pulmonary TB is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M tuberculosis).TB is contagious. This means the bacteria is easily spread from an infected person to someone else. You can get TB by breathing in air droplets from a cough or sneeze of an infected person. Symtoms Symptoms of TB can develop slowly and may vary. The main symptoms of pulmonary TB include: • a bad cough that lasts for at least 3 weeks • chest pain • coughing up blood or phlegm from the lungs • breathlessness More general symptoms of TB can include: • weight loss • a loss of appetite • nausea and vomiting • low energy or fatigue • fever and chills • night sweats People with latent TB do not have any symptoms or feel sick. Risk factors for pulmonary TB The risk for getting pulmonary TB is highest for people who are in close contact with those who have TB. This includes being around family or friends with TB or working in places such as the following that often house people with TB: • correctional facilities • group homes • nursing homes • hospitals • shelters People also at risk for developing pulmonary TB disease are: • older adults • small children • people who smoke • people with an autoimmune disorder, such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis • people with lifelong conditions, such as diabetes or kidney disease • people who inject drugs • people who are immunocompromised, such as those living with HIV, undergoingchemotherapy, or taking chronic steroids. Pulmonary TB diagnosis During your examination, your doctor will: • conduct a physical exam to check for fluid in your lungs • ask about your medical history • schedule a chest X-ray • order a medical test to confirm pulmonary TB Pulmonary TB spread You can’t get pulmonary TB by: • shaking hands • sharing food or drink • sleeping in the same bed • kissing TB is airborne, which means you can become infected with M. tuberculosis after breathing air exhaled by someone with tuberculosis. This can be air from: • coughing • sneezing • laughing • singing The germs can stay in the air for several hours. It’s possible to inhale them even when the infected person isn’t in the room. But usually you have to be close to someone with TB for a long period of time to catch it. Treatment It’s important to get treatment for latent TB even if you have no symptoms. You can still develop pulmonary TB disease in the future. You may only need one TB drug if you have latent TB. If you have pulmonary TB, your doctor may prescribe several medicines. You’ll need to take these drugs for six months or longer for the best results. The most common TB medicines are: • isoniazid • pyrazinamide • ethambutol (Myambutol) • rifampin (Rifadin) Name –shubhanshi mishra (jv-d/18/2289) DPT 5th sem

  • RITIKA JAIN 859 Hrs 41 Min 20 Sec

    YASHODA JADOUN CLAVICLE FRACTU RE Defination- A clavicle fracture, also known as a broken collarbone, is a bone fracture of the clavicle. Symptoms typically include pain at the site of the break and a decreased ability to move the affected arm.Complications can include a collection of air in the pleural space surrounding the lung (pneumothorax), injury to the nerves or blood vessels in the area, and an unpleasant appearance . CAUSES Common cause of a broken collarbone include: 1- falls, such as falling onto your shoulder or onto your oustretched hand . 2- sports injuries such as direct blow to your shoulder on field ,rink or court. 3-vehicle trauma from a car, motocycle or bike accident. 4- birth injury from passing through the birth canal. Symptoms Signs and symptoms of a broken collarbone include: 1- Pain that increases with shoulder movement. 2- Swelling. 3- Tenderness. 4- Bruising. 5- A bulge on or near your shoulder. 6- A grinding or crackling sound when you try to move your shoulder. 7- Stiffness or inability to move your shoulder. 8- Newborn children will often not move their arm for several days following a birth-related collarbone fracture. Diagnosis During the physical exam, your doctor will inspect the affected area for tenderness, swelling, deformity or an open wound. X-rays determine the extent of a broken collarbone, pinpoint its location and determine if theres injury to the joints. Your doctor might also recommend a CT scan to get more-detailed images. Treatment Restricting the movement of any broken bone is critical to healing. To immobilize a broken collarbone, youll likely need to wear an arm sling. How long immobilization is needed depends on the severity of the injury. Bone union usually takes three to six weeks for children and six to 12 weeks for adults. A newborns collarbone that breaks during delivery typically heals with only pain control and careful handling of the baby. NAME- RITIKA JAIN (JV-D/18/2290) , YASHODA JADOUN (JV-D/18/2564) DPT 5TH SEM

  • RITIKA JAIN 859 Hrs 43 Min 10 Sec

    RITIKA JAIN CLAVICLE FRACTU RE Defination- A clavicle fracture, also known as a broken collarbone, is a bone fracture of the clavicle. Symptoms typically include pain at the site of the break and a decreased ability to move the affected arm.Complications can include a collection of air in the pleural space surrounding the lung (pneumothorax), injury to the nerves or blood vessels in the area, and an unpleasant appearance . CAUSES Common cause of a broken collarbone include: 1- falls, such as falling onto your shoulder or onto your oustretched hand . 2- sports injuries such as direct blow to your shoulder on field ,rink or court. 3-vehicle trauma from a car, motocycle or bike accident. 4- birth injury from passing through the birth canal. Symptoms Signs and symptoms of a broken collarbone include: 1- Pain that increases with shoulder movement. 2- Swelling. 3- Tenderness. 4- Bruising. 5- A bulge on or near your shoulder. 6- A grinding or crackling sound when you try to move your shoulder. 7- Stiffness or inability to move your shoulder. 8- Newborn children will often not move their arm for several days following a birth-related collarbone fracture. Diagnosis During the physical exam, your doctor will inspect the affected area for tenderness, swelling, deformity or an open wound. X-rays determine the extent of a broken collarbone, pinpoint its location and determine if theres injury to the joints. Your doctor might also recommend a CT scan to get more-detailed images. Treatment Restricting the movement of any broken bone is critical to healing. To immobilize a broken collarbone, youll likely need to wear an arm sling. How long immobilization is needed depends on the severity of the injury. Bone union usually takes three to six weeks for children and six to 12 weeks for adults. A newborns collarbone that breaks during delivery typically heals with only pain control and careful handling of the baby. NAME- RITIKA JAIN , YASHODA JADOUN

  • HARSHITA CHOUDHARY 859 Hrs 51 Min 11 Sec

    STROKE INTRODUCTION: A stroke occurs when the blood supply to part of your brain is interrupted or reduced, preventing brain tissue from getting oxygen and nutrients. Brain cells begin to die in minutes. A stroke is a medical emergency, and prompt treatment is crucial. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS: 1) Sudden numbness or weakness in the face, arm, or leg, especially on one side of the body. 2)Sudden confusion, trouble speaking, or difficulty understanding speech. 3)Sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes. 4)Sudden trouble walking, dizziness, loss of balance, or lack of coordination. 5)Sudden severe headache with no known cause. Acting F.A.S.T. Is Key for Stroke F—Face: Ask the person to smile. Does one side of the face droop? A—Arms: Ask the person to raise both arms. Does one arm drift downward? S—Speech: Ask the person to repeat a simple phrase. Is the speech slurred or strange? T—Time: If you see any of these signs, call 9-1-1 right away. TYPES : 1)Ischemic stroke:- In 8 out of 10 strokes, a blood vessel that takes blood to your brain gets plugged. It happens when fatty deposits in arteries break off and travel to the brain or when poor blood flow from an irregular heartbeat forms a blood clot. 2)Hemorrhagic stroke:- Its less common than an ischemic stroke but can be more serious. A blood vessel in your brain balloons up and bursts, or a weakened one leaks. Uncontrolled high blood pressure and taking too much blood thinner. CAUSES:- 1) High blood pressure = Your doctor may call it hypertension. Its the biggest cause of strokes. 2)Tobacco = Smoking or chewing it raises your odds of a stroke. Nicotine makes your blood pressure go up. Cigarette smoke causes a fatty buildup in your main neck artery. It also thickens your blood and makes it more likely to clot. 3)Heart disease = This condition includes defective heart valves as well as atrial fibrillation, or irregular heartbeat, which causes a quarter of all strokes among the very elderly. DIAGNOSIS:- 1) Computerized tomography (CT) scan- A CT scan uses a series of X-rays to create a detailed image of your brain. A CT scan can show bleeding in the brain, an ischemic stroke, a tumor or other conditions. 2)Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)- An MRI uses powerful radio waves and magnets to create a detailed view of your brain. An MRI can detect brain tissue damaged by an ischemic stroke and brain hemorrhages. TREATMENT:- MEDICATIONS:-(i) Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) (ii) Blood pressure drugs (iii) Antiplatelets drugs includes aspirin and clopdoriel. THERAPY:- 1) Speech therapy Treats people with speech and language problems. 2) Rehabilitation Retraining the brains pathways to improve mental and physical functioning after an illness or injury. For example, after a blow to the head (concussion). 3) Occupational Therapy Improves daily living and work skills of patients. 4) Physical Therapy Restores muscle strength and function through exercise. 5) Stroke rehabilitation Relearning skills that are lost when the brain is damaged by a stroke. For example, how to walk and talk. NAME: TRIPTI SHARMA (jv-d/18/2698) HARSHITA CHOUDHARY(JV-I/18/2484) COURSE: DPT 5th SEMESTER

  • TRIPTI SHARMA 859 Hrs 52 Min 03 Sec

    STROKE INTRODUCTION: A stroke occurs when the blood supply to part of your brain is interrupted or reduced, preventing brain tissue from getting oxygen and nutrients. Brain cells begin to die in minutes. A stroke is a medical emergency, and prompt treatment is crucial. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS: 1) Sudden numbness or weakness in the face, arm, or leg, especially on one side of the body. 2)Sudden confusion, trouble speaking, or difficulty understanding speech. 3)Sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes. 4)Sudden trouble walking, dizziness, loss of balance, or lack of coordination. 5)Sudden severe headache with no known cause. Acting F.A.S.T. Is Key for Stroke F—Face: Ask the person to smile. Does one side of the face droop? A—Arms: Ask the person to raise both arms. Does one arm drift downward? S—Speech: Ask the person to repeat a simple phrase. Is the speech slurred or strange? T—Time: If you see any of these signs, call 9-1-1 right away. TYPES : 1)Ischemic stroke:- In 8 out of 10 strokes, a blood vessel that takes blood to your brain gets plugged. It happens when fatty deposits in arteries break off and travel to the brain or when poor blood flow from an irregular heartbeat forms a blood clot. 2)Hemorrhagic stroke:- Its less common than an ischemic stroke but can be more serious. A blood vessel in your brain balloons up and bursts, or a weakened one leaks. Uncontrolled high blood pressure and taking too much blood thinner. CAUSES:- 1) High blood pressure = Your doctor may call it hypertension. Its the biggest cause of strokes. 2)Tobacco = Smoking or chewing it raises your odds of a stroke. Nicotine makes your blood pressure go up. Cigarette smoke causes a fatty buildup in your main neck artery. It also thickens your blood and makes it more likely to clot. 3)Heart disease = This condition includes defective heart valves as well as atrial fibrillation, or irregular heartbeat, which causes a quarter of all strokes among the very elderly. DIAGNOSIS:- 1) Computerized tomography (CT) scan- A CT scan uses a series of X-rays to create a detailed image of your brain. A CT scan can show bleeding in the brain, an ischemic stroke, a tumor or other conditions. 2)Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)- An MRI uses powerful radio waves and magnets to create a detailed view of your brain. An MRI can detect brain tissue damaged by an ischemic stroke and brain hemorrhages. TREATMENT:- MEDICATIONS:-(i) Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) (ii) Blood pressure drugs (iii) Antiplatelets drugs includes aspirin and clopdoriel. THERAPY:- 1) Speech therapy Treats people with speech and language problems. 2) Rehabilitation Retraining the brains pathways to improve mental and physical functioning after an illness or injury. For example, after a blow to the head (concussion). 3) Occupational Therapy Improves daily living and work skills of patients. 4) Physical Therapy Restores muscle strength and function through exercise. 5) Stroke rehabilitation Relearning skills that are lost when the brain is damaged by a stroke. For example, how to walk and talk. NAME: TRIPTI SHARMA (jv-d/18/2698) HARSHITA CHOUDHARY(JV-I/18/2484) COURSE: DPT 5th SEMESTER

  • ANCHAL KUMARI 860 Hrs 26 Min 17 Sec

    JVWU #CDA Activity Namaste My self - Anchal kumari course - DPT 3rd Sem Enroll - Jv-d/19/3224 Topic - Posture Correction in physiotherapy What is the first thing people notice about you? Your Posture! Besides making you look good, your posture also affects you health. If you or your family are not feeling the best, posture could be the reason behind it. Get your posture checked at Active Physio Health. The Daily Posture Problems Our daily lives present a lot of posture problems on kids and adults alike. Whether it is sitting in a classroom, on the lounge watching TV, or at a computer for extended periods of time, almost everyone is in need of a good posture correction program. Ironically enough, people notice other people’s postures but don’t think about their own and therein lies the problem. At Active Health Physio, we help people realize the importance of a good posture and improve their posture through our posture analysis program. What is Posture? Posture is the unconscious position assumed by your body in response to gravity. It is influenced by two main factors: 1. Your genes 2. The way you use your body While you cannot do much (or anything at all) about the genes you inherited, you have complete control over the second factor. If you use your body properly during regular activities such as standing, sitting and sleeping, you can correct your posture. Why is Posture Correction important? Improving your posture is the simplest and smartest way to improve all your body’s functions from breathing and digestion to hormone production to even strengthening your immune system. Active Physio Health’s posture correction program provides the invaluable guidance to improve your posture. Analysing your posture is critical as it sets you in the right direction regarding your posture correction endeavours. Expert Opinion “Every inch of forward head posture can increase the weight of the head on the spine by an additional 10 pounds.” Kapandji, Physiology of Joints, Vol 3. “90% of the stimulation and nutrition to the brain is generated by the movement of the spine” Dr. Roger Sperry, (Nobel Prize recipient for brain research) With experts in the field of physiotherapy placing so much importance on posture correction you would be doing yourselves a great favour by heeding their words. Problems caused by Poor Posture A poor posture, while causing considerable overall damage to your health, can manifest itself through things such as : 1.Back pain 2. Spinal dysfunction 3.Joint degeneration 4.Rounded shoulders 5.Potbelly So, howdo you avoid all the problems of poor posture? You can avoid a lot of pain and trouble through proper posture correction by making a few lifestyle adjustments. Proper guidance is critical. When you come to Active Physio Health, you can use our posture analysis program to determine how ‘off’ your posture really is and what kind of effort and steps you will need to improve your posture. Our physiotherapists use their knowledge and experience to direct your posture correction process. Posture correction entails a combination of small (yet significant) lifestyle changes and professional physio care, both of which are taken complete care of at Active Physio’s posture correction program. Posture Correction Tips You can start some basic posture correction activities immediately such as: 1. Exercise. You need to build your muscles to give your neck and spine the strength they need. Yoga and Pilates are the best. 2.Hold your head. Tilting your head forward is the most common reason of bad posture, especially for people spending the whole day on a desk or computer. Be conscious of your head tilting forward and bring it back in alignment with your shoulders. 3.Keep your shoulders straight. Pull your shoulders back towards each other whenever you find them slouching. It will take a while to get used to such changes, but persevere and you will find a good posture to be the natural way you carry yourself, enjoying the multitude of health benefits that posture correction offers. At Active Physio Health’s posture correction program, people find themselves adapting to the new and healthier lifestyle with ease and comfort. THANKS anchal dpt 03 sem.docx Displaying anchal dpt 03 sem.docx.

  • KM JAYA KUMARI 860 Hrs 28 Min 54 Sec

    I am JAYA KUMARI from bpt 3rd sem. Enroll -JV-I/19/3629#jvwu #jvmission #cda #e-physio #physiotheraphyanddiagnostic. TOPIC-ANEMIA INTRODUCTION  Anemia is a major killer in India.  Statistics reveal that every second Indian woman is anemic  One in every five maternal deaths is directly due to anemia.  Anemia affects both adults and children of both sexes, although pregnant women and adolescent girls are most susceptible and most affected by this disease. 3. OBJECTIVES  Definition of anemia  Classification of anemia  Anemia Cause  Anemia Symptoms  Lab Investigation of Anemia  Treatment  Prevention 4. DEFINITION  Anemia (An-without,emia-blood)is a decrease in the RBC count, hemoglobin and/or Hematocrit values resulting in a lower ability for the blood to carry oxygen to body tissues . 5. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY 6. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY 7. NORMAL VALUES  Category Reference Values  Men >13 g/dl  Women >12 g/dl  Pregnant women >11g/dl  Infants from 2 to 6 months >9.5 g/dl  Children from 6 months to 24 months >10.5 g/dl  2yrs to 11 yrs >11.5 g/dl  Children from 12 years >12 g/dl Category Values Reference Men >13 g/dl Women >12 g/dl Pregnant women >11g/dl Infants from 2 to 6 months >9.5 g/dl Children from 6 months to 24 months >10.5 g/dl 2yrs to 11 yrs >11.5 g/dl Children from 12 years >12 g/dl 8. CLASSIFICATION 9. TYPES OF ANEMIA Based on clinical picture-  Iron deficiency anemia.  Megaloblastic anemia.  Pernicious anemia.  Hemorrhagic anemia.  Hemolytic anemia. -Thalassemia anemia -Sickle cell anemia  Aplastic anemia 10. TYPES OF ANEMIA  Iron deficiency anemia ♣ excessive loss of iron . ♣ Women are at risk. ---- For menstrual blood and growing fetus.  Megaloblastic anemia ♣ Less intake of vitamin B 12 and folic acid. ♣ Red bone marrow produces abnormal RBC. e.g cancer drugs  Pernicious anemia ♣ Inability of stomach to absorb vitamin B 12 in small intestine. 11. TYPES OF ANEMIA  Hemorrhagic anemia ♣ Excessive loss of RBC through bleeding,stomach ulcers,menstruation  Hemolytic anemia ♣ RBC plasma membrane ruptures. ♣ may be due to parasites,toxins,antibodies.  Thalassemmia ♣ Less synthesis of hemoglobin .Found in population of Mediterranean sea.  Sickle cell anemia ♣ Hereditary blood disorder, characterized by red blood cells that assume an abnormal, rigid, sickle shape.  Aplastic anemia ♣ destruction of red bone marrow . ♣ caused by toxins,gamma radiation. 12.  Normochromic, normocytic anemia (normal MCHC, normal MCV).These include:  anemias of chronic disease  hemolytic anemias (those characterized by accelerated destruction of rbcs)  anemia of acute hemorrhage  aplastic anemias (those characterized by disappearance of rbc precursors from the marrow)  Hypochromic, microcytic anemia (low MCHC, low MCV).These include:  iron deficiency anemia  thalassemias  anemia of chronic diseases  Normochromic, macrocytic anemia (normal MCHC, high MCV).These include:  vitamin B12 deficiency  folate deficiency TYPES OF ANEMIA 13. TYPES OF ANEMIA 14. RISK FACTORS  Poor socio economic class  Multiparity  Teenage pregnancy  Menstural problem 15. CAUSES 16. SIGNS&SYMPTOMS 17. SYMPTOMS Common symptoms of anemia  Easy fatigue and loss of energy  Unusually rapid heart beat, particularly with exercise  Shortness of breath and headache, particularly with exercise  Difficulty concentrating  Dizziness  Pale skin  Leg cramps  Insomnia 18. Anemia Caused by Iron Deficiency People with an iron deficiency may experience these symptoms:  A hunger for strange substances such as paper, ice, or dirt (a condition called pica)  Upward curvature of the nails, referred to as koilonychias  Soreness of the mouth with cracks at the corners Anemia Caused by Vitamin B12 Deficiency People whose anemia is caused by a deficiency of Vitamin B12 may have these symptoms:  A tingling, "pins and needles" sensation in the hands or feet  Lost sense of touch  A wobbly gait and difficulty walking  Clumsiness and stiffness of the arms and legs  Dementia  Hallucinations, paranoia, and schizophrenia 19. SIGNS OF ANAEMIA  Brittle nails  Koilonychia (spoon shaped nails)  Atrophy of the papillae of the tongue  Angular stomatitis  Brittle hair  Dysphagia and Glossitis  Plummer vinson/kelly patterson 20. SYMPTOMS&SIGNS 21. INVESTIGATIONS 22. The red cell population is defined by 1.Quantitative parameters:  Volume of packed cells i.e. the hematocrit  Hemoglobin concentration  Red cell concentration per unit volume. 2.Qualitative parameters:  Mean corpuscular volume  Mean corpuscular hemoglobin  Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. INVESTIGATIONS 23.  Hematocrit ( Packed cell volume): It is the proportion of the volume of blood sample that is occupied by RBCs.  Men -42-52%  Women -36-48%  Cell Volume Hemoglobin Concentration: It is the amount of hemoglobin per unit volume of blood.(Gms/Dl)  Women - 12-16gms/dl  Men - 14-17 gms/dl  Red Cell Count: Total number of Red Cells per unit volume of blood sample. [ No.of RBC/ cu.mm ]  Men - 4.2-5.4*106//mm3  Women- 3.6-5.0* 106/mm3 INVESTIGATIONS 24.  Mean Corpuscular Volume: It is the average volume a RBC. [ fL ]  Normal 82-98mm3or 82-98fL  Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin: It is the average hemoglobin content per RBC.  Normal value is 27 to 31 pL  Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration: It is the average concentration of hemoglobin in a given Red Cell Volume. [Gms/ dL ]  Normal 32-36 g/Dl INVESTIGATIONS 25. MANAGEMENT Care Objectives  Determine the Cause of Iron Deficiency  The etiology is often multifactorial; even when there is an obvious cause, investigation of serious underlying causes (e.g.cancer in adults) is recommended.  Aim of Treatment  Normalize hemoglobin levels and red cell indices; replenish iron stores.  Individualize disease-specific management depending on underlying cause.  Lifestyle Management It is recommended that patients with iron deficiency receive dietary advice . 26. NON PHARMOCOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT:  Tea and coffee inhibit iron absorption when consumed with a meal or shortly after a meal.  Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is also a powerful enhancer of iron absorption from nonmeat foods when consumed with a meal. The size of the vitamin C effect on iron absorption increases with the quantity of vitamin C in the meal.  Germination and fermentation of cereals and legumes improve the bioavailability of iron by reducing the content of phytate, a substance in food that inhibits iron absorption.  Promote and support exclusive breastfeeding for about 6 months followed by breastfeeding with appropriate complementary foods, including iron-rich through the second year of life. 27. RECOMMENDED DIETARY ALLOWANCE Mg/DAY Men Adult 8 mg Women Adult (age 50 on) 8 mg Adult (ages 19 to 50) 18 mg Pregnant 27 mg Lactating 9 mg to 10 mg Adolescents (ages 9 to 18) Girls Boys 8 mg to 15 mg 8 mg to 11 mg Children (birth to age 8) Ages 4 to 8 10 mg Infants (7 months to 1 year) Infants (birth to 6 months) 11 mg 0.27 mg 28. MANAGEMENT Complimentary parasite control measures  Anti-helminthic therapy with 400 mg of single dose of albendazole is given to eliminate hook worms before the initiation of iron and folic acid therapy.  Child - <2yrs-200mg/day single dose  Pregnancy- Albendazole is contraindicated in first trimester, can be administered in second or third trimester. 29. TREATMENT FOR 6-24 MONTHS Dosage Birth-weight category Duration 12.5 mg iron + 50 ug folic acid daily Normal Low birth weight (<2500 g) 6-24 months of age 2-24 months of age 30. GROUP DOSAGE/day Children 2-5 years 20-30 mg iron Children 6-11 years 30-60 mg iron Adolescents and adults 60 mg iron TREATMENT OF MILD &MODERATE  Anemia will correct within 2 to 4 months if appropriate iron dosages are administered and underlying cause of iron deficiency is corrected.  Continue iron therapy an additional 4 to 6 months (adults) after the hemoglobin normalizes to replenish the iron stores. 31. TREATMENT OF SEVERE ANEMIA  After completing 3 months of therapeutic supplementation, pregnant women and infants should continue preventive supplementation program AGE GROUP DOSE DURATION <2 years 25 mg iron + 100-400 ug folic acid daily 3 months 2-12 years 60 mg iron + 400 ug folic acid daily 3 months Adolescents and adults, including pregnant women 120 mg iron + 400 ug folic acid daily 3 months 32. Prevalence of anemia in pregnancy Dose Duration >40 % in population 60 mg iron + 400 ug folic acid daily 6 months in pregnancy, and continuing to 3 months postpartum TREATMENT OF PREGNANT WOMEN 33.  Iron absorption may be decreased by antacids or supplements containing aluminum, maganesium, calcium, zinc, proton pump inhibitors.  Space administration apart by at least 2 hours.  Oral iron preparations may cause nausea, vomiting, dyspepsia, constipation, diarrhea or dark stools.  Strategies to minimize these effects include: start at a lower dose and increase gradually over 4 to 5 days; giving divided doses or the lowest effective dose, or taking supplements with meals  Although sustained release iron preparations tend towards less gastrointestinal side effects, they may not be as effective as standard film coated products due to reduced/poor iron absorption.15 34. BENEFITS OF THERAPY POPULATION GROUP BENEFITS Children Improved behaviour and cognitive development Where anaemia is common, improved child survival Adolescents Improved cognitive development In girls, better iron stores for later pregnancies Pregnant women and their infants Decreased low birth weight Where severe anaemia is common, decreased maternal mortality and obstetrical complications All individuals Improved fitness and work capacity Improved cognition 35. THANK YOU

  • SONAM KUMAWAT 860 Hrs 29 Min 57 Sec

    Sonam kumawat from BPT 3rd sem Enroll(jv-u/19/3199) #jvwu #university#CDA Thrombosis is the process of a blood clot, also known as a thrombus, forming in a blood vessel. This clot can block or obstruct blood flow in the affected area, as well as cause serious complications if the clot moves to a crucial part of the circulatory system, such as the brain or the lungs. It is normal for the body to produce clotting factors like platelets and fibrin when a blood vessel is injured, to prevent an excessive loss of blood from the body. If this effect is over productive it can obstruct the flow of blood and form an embolus that moves around the blood stream. Thrombosis Types Thrombosis can be broadly classified as either venous thrombosis or arterial thrombosis, according to where the thrombus presents in the body. Venous thrombosis occurs in the veins and is categorized further according to where it occurs including: Deep vein thrombosis Portal vein thrombosis Renal vein thrombosis Jugular vein thrombosis Budd-Chiari Syndrome Paget-Schoetter disease Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis Causes There are three main causes of thrombosis: hypercoagulability, injury to the endothelial cells of the blood vessel wall and abnormal flow of the blood. Hypercoagulability, also known as thrombophilia, refers higher levels of coagulation factors in the blood that increase susceptibility to thrombosis. This is usually as a result of genetics or disorders of the immune system. Injury to the epithelial cells on the wall of blood vessels after trauma, surgery or and infection can also precipitate coagulation and possible thrombosis. Abnormal blood flow, such as venous stasis following heart failure or long periods of sedentary behavior, can also cause thrombosis to occur. Additionally, some other health conditions can affect blood flow and lead to the production of a thrombus, including atrial fibrillation and cancer. Prevention and Treatment As stasis of the blood is associated with increased risk of thrombosis, it is important that movements are made regularly, particularly if susceptible individuals are likely to be sedentary for long periods of time, such as in bed or on an airplane. For people at high risk of venous thromboembolism, heparin can be administered to reduce risk of pulmonary embolism, although this is associated with higher susceptibility to bleeding due to the reduced efficacy of the clotting factors. Therefore, heparin offers greater use in the treatment, rather than prevention of thrombosis. A more coherent method to prevent the formation of deep vein thrombosis is the use of compression stockings, which mechanically support the vein to inhibit the formation of blood clots. This is particularly beneficial as there are few side effects. Anticoagulants may increase the risk of major bleeding slightly, but has been found to offer a benefit in both the prevention and treatment of thrombosis.

  • KM AVNI 860 Hrs 31 Min 09 Sec

    I Jvn KM AVNI From Bpt 3rd sem .Enroll-jv-u/19/3491#jvwu#jvmission#cda#E-Physio.#Topic-polioWhat is Polio? • Polio, or poliomyelitis, is a disabling and life-threatening disease caused by the poliovirus. • The virus spreads from person to person and can infect a person’s spinal cord, causing paralysis (can’t move parts of the body). Symptoms Post-Polio Syndrome Post-polio syndrome (PPS) is a condition that can affect polio survivors decades after they recover from their initial poliovirus infection. Most people who get infected with poliovirus (about 72 out of 100) will not have any visible symptoms. About 1 out of 4 people with poliovirus infection will have flu-like symptoms that may include: • Sore throat • Fever • Tiredness • Nausea • Headache • Stomach pain These symptoms usually last 2 to 5 days, then go away on their own. A smaller proportion of people with poliovirus infection will develop other, more serious symptoms that affect the brain and spinal cord: • Paresthesia (feeling of pins and needles in the legs) • Meningitis (infection of the covering of the spinal cord and/or brain) occurs in about 1 out of 25 people with poliovirus infection • Paralysis (can’t move parts of the body) or weakness in the arms, legs, or both, occurs in about 1 out of 200 people with poliovirus infection Paralysis is the most severe symptom associated with polio, because it can lead to permanent disability and death. Between 2 and 10 out of 100 people who have paralysis from poliovirus infection die, because the virus affects the muscles that help them breathe. Even children who seem to fully recover can develop new muscle pain, weakness, or paralysis as adults, 15 to 40 years later. This is called post-polio syndrome. Note that “poliomyelitis” (or “polio” for short) is defined as the paralytic disease. So only people with the paralytic infection are considered to have the disease. Transmission • Poliovirus is very contagious and spreads through person-to-person contact. • It lives in an infected person’s throat and intestines. Poliovirus only infects people. It enters the body through the mouth and spreads through: • Contact with the feces (poop) of an infected person. • Droplets from a sneeze or cough of an infected person (less common). You can get infected with poliovirus if: • You have feces on your hands, and you touch your mouth. • You put in your mouth objects like toys that are contaminated with feces. An infected person may spread the virus to others immediately before and up to 2 weeks after symptoms appear. • The virus can live in an infected person’s feces for many weeks. It can contaminate food and water in unsanitary conditions. • People who don’t have symptoms can still pass the virus to others and make them sick. Prevention & Treatment There are two types of vaccine that can prevent polio: • Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) given as an injection in the leg or arm, depending on the patient’s age. Only IPV has been used in the United States since 2000. • Oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) is still used throughout much of the world. Polio vaccine protects children by preparing their bodies to fight the poliovirus. Almost all children (99 children out of 100) who get all the recommended doses of the inactivated polio vaccine will be protected from polio. Diagnosis, Specimens, and Containment Diagnosis Page last reviewed: October 24, 2019 Content source: Global Immunization • Global Immunization homePolio • What is Polioplus icon o Polio Elimination in the United States o Vaccination o For Travelers o Post-Polio Syndrome o For Healthcare Providers.

  • BHAWANA GORAKH 860 Hrs 32 Min 56 Sec

    I Jvn Bhawana Gorakh From Bpt 3rd sem .Enroll-jv-u/19/3214#jvwu#jvmission#cda#E-Physio.#Topic-polioWhat is Polio? • Polio, or poliomyelitis, is a disabling and life-threatening disease caused by the poliovirus. • The virus spreads from person to person and can infect a person’s spinal cord, causing paralysis (can’t move parts of the body). Symptoms Post-Polio Syndrome Post-polio syndrome (PPS) is a condition that can affect polio survivors decades after they recover from their initial poliovirus infection. Most people who get infected with poliovirus (about 72 out of 100) will not have any visible symptoms. About 1 out of 4 people with poliovirus infection will have flu-like symptoms that may include: • Sore throat • Fever • Tiredness • Nausea • Headache • Stomach pain These symptoms usually last 2 to 5 days, then go away on their own. A smaller proportion of people with poliovirus infection will develop other, more serious symptoms that affect the brain and spinal cord: • Paresthesia (feeling of pins and needles in the legs) • Meningitis (infection of the covering of the spinal cord and/or brain) occurs in about 1 out of 25 people with poliovirus infection • Paralysis (can’t move parts of the body) or weakness in the arms, legs, or both, occurs in about 1 out of 200 people with poliovirus infection Paralysis is the most severe symptom associated with polio, because it can lead to permanent disability and death. Between 2 and 10 out of 100 people who have paralysis from poliovirus infection die, because the virus affects the muscles that help them breathe. Even children who seem to fully recover can develop new muscle pain, weakness, or paralysis as adults, 15 to 40 years later. This is called post-polio syndrome. Note that “poliomyelitis” (or “polio” for short) is defined as the paralytic disease. So only people with the paralytic infection are considered to have the disease. Transmission • Poliovirus is very contagious and spreads through person-to-person contact. • It lives in an infected person’s throat and intestines. Poliovirus only infects people. It enters the body through the mouth and spreads through: • Contact with the feces (poop) of an infected person. • Droplets from a sneeze or cough of an infected person (less common). You can get infected with poliovirus if: • You have feces on your hands, and you touch your mouth. • You put in your mouth objects like toys that are contaminated with feces. An infected person may spread the virus to others immediately before and up to 2 weeks after symptoms appear. • The virus can live in an infected person’s feces for many weeks. It can contaminate food and water in unsanitary conditions. • People who don’t have symptoms can still pass the virus to others and make them sick. Prevention & Treatment There are two types of vaccine that can prevent polio: • Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) given as an injection in the leg or arm, depending on the patient’s age. Only IPV has been used in the United States since 2000. • Oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) is still used throughout much of the world. Polio vaccine protects children by preparing their bodies to fight the poliovirus. Almost all children (99 children out of 100) who get all the recommended doses of the inactivated polio vaccine will be protected from polio. Diagnosis, Specimens, and Containment Diagnosis Page last reviewed: October 24, 2019 Content source: Global Immunization • Global Immunization homePolio • What is Polioplus icon o Polio Elimination in the United States o Vaccination o For Travelers o Post-Polio Syndrome o For Healthcare Providers.

  • EKTA PRAJAPAT 860 Hrs 34 Min 00 Sec

    I am EKTA PRAJAPAT from bpt 3rd sem. Enroll -JV-I/19/3364#jvwu #jvmission #cda #e-physio #physiotheraphyanddiagnostic. TOPIC-MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY • Causes • Inheritance • Dominant genes • Recessive gene Depends on the age when symptoms appear, and the types of symptoms that develop. • Risk • Because these are inherited disorders, risk include a family history of muscular dystrophy How Many People Are Affected It is estimated that between 50,000 -250,000 are affected annually. 1 per 3500 live male births 3. • Muscular dystrophy is a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders recognized by progressive degenerative muscle weakness and loss of muscle tissue (started in childhood). • Affect muscles strength and action. • Generalized or localized. • Skeletal muscle and other organs may involve • Limitation: Difficulties with walking or Maintaining posture, Muscle spasms. Neurological, Behavioral, Cardiac, or other Functional limitations. 4. Classification • Sex-linked: DMD, BMD, EDMD • Autosomal recessive: LGMD, infantile FSHD • Autosomal dominant: FSHD, distalMD, ocular MD, oculopharyngeal MD. 5. Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Guillaume Benjamin Amand Duchenne (French neurologist, 1860s) 6. • Etiology ▫ single gene defect ▫ Xp21.2 region ▫ absent dystrophin 7. • Most common • male, Turner syndrome • 1:3500 live male birth • 1/3 new mutation • 65% family history 8. Clinical manifestation • Onset : age 3-6 years • Progressive weakness • Pseudohypertrophy of calf muscles • Spinal deformity • Cardiopulmonary involvement • Mild - moderate MR 9. Natural history • Progress slowly and continuously • muscle weakness ▫ lower --> upper extremities • unable to ambulate: 10 year (7-12) • death from pulmonary/ cardiac failure: 2-3rd de cade 10. Pseudohypertrhophy of calf muscle, Tip toe gait forward tilt of pelvis, compensatory lordosis 11. Disappearance of lordosis while sitting 12. DMD: Diagnosis • Gait • Absent DTR • Ober test • Thomas test • Meyeron sign - child slips through truncal grasp • Macroglossia • Myocardial deterioration • IQ ~ 80 • Increase CPK (200x) • Myopathic change in EMG Bx: m. degeneration • Immunoblotting: Absence dystrophin • DNA mutation analysis 13. Becker Muscular Dystrophy Peter Emil Becker (German doctor, 1950s) 14. • Milder version of DMD • Etiology ▫ single gene defect ▫ short arm X chromosome ▫ altered size & decreased amount of dystrophin 15. • Less common ▫ 1: 30000 live male birth • Less severe • Family history: atypical MD • Similar & less severe than DMD • Onset: age > 7 years • Pseudohypertrophy of calf • Equinous and varus foot • High rate of scoliosis • Less frequent cardiac involvement Clinical features 16. Diagnosis • The same as DMD • Increase CPK (<200x) • Decrease dystrophin and/or altered size Natural history ▫ Slower progression ▫ ambulate until adolescence ▫ longer life expectancy Treatment ▫ the same as in DMD ▫ forefoot equinous: plantar release, midfoot dorsal- wedge osteotomy 17. Emery-Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy • Etiology ▫ X-linked recessive ▫ Xq28 ▫ Emerin protein (in nuclear membrane) • Epidemiology ▫ Male: typical phenotype ▫ Female carrier: partial • Clinical Features ▫ Muscle weakness ▫ Contracture  Neck extension, elbow, achillis tendon 18. Scoliosis: common, low incidence of progression Bradycardia, 1st degree AV block  sudden death 19. • Diagnosis ▫ Gower’s sign ▫ Mildly/moderately elevated CPK ▫ EMG: myopathic ▫ Normal dystrophin • Natural history ▫ 1st 10 y: mild weakness ▫ Later: contracture, cardiac abnormality ▫ 5th-6th decade: can ambulate ▫ Poor prognosis in obesity, untreated equinus contractures. 20. Treatment • Physical therapy ▫ Prevent contracture: neck, elbow, paravertebral muscles ▫ For slow progress elbow flexion contracture • Soft tissue contracture ▫ Achillis lengthening, posterior ankle capsulotomy + anterior transfer of tibialis posterior • Spinal stabilization ▫ For curve > 40 degrees • Cardiologic intervention ▫ Cardiac pacemaker 21. Limb - Girdle Muscular Dystrophy •Etiology ▫ Autosomal recessive at chromosome 15q ▫ Autosomal dominant at 5q •Epidemiology ▫ Common ▫ More benign 22. • Clinical manifestation ▫ Age of onset: 3rd decade ▫ Initial: pelvic/shoulder m. (proximal to distal) ▫ Similar distribution as DMD 23. Hemiatrophy 24. •Classification ▫ Pelvic girdle type  common ▫ Scapulohumeral type  rare • Diagnosis ▫ Same clinical as DMD/BMD carriers ▫ Moderately elevated CPK ▫ Normal dystrophin 25. • Natural history ▫ Slow progression ▫ After onset > 20 y: contracture & disability ▫ Rarely significant scoliosis • Treatment ▫ Similar to DMD ▫ Scoliosis: mild, no Rx. 26. Fascioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy • Etiology ▫ Autosomal dominant ▫ Gene defect (FRG1) ▫ Chromosome 4q35 • Epidemiology ▫ Female > male • Clinical manifestation ▫ Age of onset: late childhood/ early adult ▫ No cardiac, CNS involvement ▫ Winging scapula ▫ Markedly decreased shoulder flexion & abduction ▫ Horizontal clavicles ▫ Rare scoliosis 27. • Muscle weakness ▫ face, shoulder, upper arm • Sparing ▫ Deltoid ▫ Distal pectoralis major ▫ Erector spinae 28. • “Popeye” appearance ▫ Lack of facial mobility ▫ Incomplete eye closure ▫ Pouting lips ▫ Transverse smile ▫ Absence of eye and forehead wrinkles POPEYE ARMS 29. • Diagnosis ▫ PE, muscle biopsy ▫ Normal serum CPK • Natural history ▫ Slow progression ▫ Face, shoulder m.  pelvic girdle, tibialis ant ▫ Good life expectancy • Treatment ▫ Posterior scpulocostal fusion/ stabilization (scapuloplexy) 30. Distal Muscular Dystrophy • Autosomal dominant trait • Rare • Dysferlin (mb prot) defect • Age of onset: after 45 yrs • Initial involvement: intrinsic hands, claves, tibialis posterior • Spread proximally • Normal sensation 31. Congenital Muscular Dystrophy • Etiology ▫ Autosomal recessive ▫ Integrin, fugutin defect • Epidemiology ▫ Rare ▫ Both male and female • Classification ▫ Merosin-negative ▫ Merosin-positive ▫ Neuronal migration  Fukuyama  Muscle eye-brain  Wlaker-Warburg 32. Clinical manifestation • Stiffness of joint • Congenital hip dislocation, subluxation • Achillis tendon contracture, talipes equinovarus • Scoliosis 33. Diagnosis Muscle Bx: Perimysial and endomysial fibrosis Treatment Physical therapy Orthosis Soft tissue release Osteotomy 34. Oculopharyngeal Muscular Dystrophy • Autosomal dominant • Age of onset: 3rd decade • Ptosis in middle life • Pharyngeal involvement ▫ Dysarthria ▫ Dysphasia ▫ Repetitive regurgitation ▫ Frequently choking 35. Myotonic Muscular Dystrophy HATCHET FACIES 36. `Classical form of the disease is seen in adolescent or early adult life with variable presenting features. • Muscular weakness, •myotonia, •mental retardation, •cataract, •neonatal problems •18% remain asymptomatic. 37. Summary Clinical DMD LGMD FSMD DD CMD Incidence common less Not common Rare Rare Age of onset 3-6 y 2nd decade 2nd decade 20-77 y At/ after birth Sex Male Either sex M = F Either sex Both Inheritance Sex-linked recessive AR, rare AD AD AD Unknown Muscle involve. Proximal to distal Proximal to distal Face & shoulder to pelvic Distal Generalized Muscle spread until late Leg, hand, arm, face, larynx,eye Upper ex, calf Back ext, hip abd, quad Proximal - 38. Clinical DMD LGMD FSMD DD CMD Pseudo hypertrophy 80% calf < 33% Rare no No Contracture Common Late Mild, late Mild, late Severe Scoliosis Kyphoscoliosis Common, late Late - - ? Heart Hypertrophyt achycardia Very rare Very rare Very rare Not observed Intellectual decrease Normal Normal Normal ? Course Stead, rapid Slow Insidious benign Steady 39. Treatment is generally aimed at controlling the onset of symptoms to maximize the quality of life.

  • KM AVNI 860 Hrs 35 Min 49 Sec

    I Jvn Bhawana Gorakh From Bpt 3rd sem .Enroll-jv-u/19/3214#jvwu#jvmission#cda#E-Physio.#Topic-polioWhat is Polio? • Polio, or poliomyelitis, is a disabling and life-threatening disease caused by the poliovirus. • The virus spreads from person to person and can infect a person’s spinal cord, causing paralysis (can’t move parts of the body). Symptoms Post-Polio Syndrome Post-polio syndrome (PPS) is a condition that can affect polio survivors decades after they recover from their initial poliovirus infection. Most people who get infected with poliovirus (about 72 out of 100) will not have any visible symptoms. About 1 out of 4 people with poliovirus infection will have flu-like symptoms that may include: • Sore throat • Fever • Tiredness • Nausea • Headache • Stomach pain These symptoms usually last 2 to 5 days, then go away on their own. A smaller proportion of people with poliovirus infection will develop other, more serious symptoms that affect the brain and spinal cord: • Paresthesia (feeling of pins and needles in the legs) • Meningitis (infection of the covering of the spinal cord and/or brain) occurs in about 1 out of 25 people with poliovirus infection • Paralysis (can’t move parts of the body) or weakness in the arms, legs, or both, occurs in about 1 out of 200 people with poliovirus infection Paralysis is the most severe symptom associated with polio, because it can lead to permanent disability and death. Between 2 and 10 out of 100 people who have paralysis from poliovirus infection die, because the virus affects the muscles that help them breathe. Even children who seem to fully recover can develop new muscle pain, weakness, or paralysis as adults, 15 to 40 years later. This is called post-polio syndrome. Note that “poliomyelitis” (or “polio” for short) is defined as the paralytic disease. So only people with the paralytic infection are considered to have the disease. Transmission • Poliovirus is very contagious and spreads through person-to-person contact. • It lives in an infected person’s throat and intestines. Poliovirus only infects people. It enters the body through the mouth and spreads through: • Contact with the feces (poop) of an infected person. • Droplets from a sneeze or cough of an infected person (less common). You can get infected with poliovirus if: • You have feces on your hands, and you touch your mouth. • You put in your mouth objects like toys that are contaminated with feces. An infected person may spread the virus to others immediately before and up to 2 weeks after symptoms appear. • The virus can live in an infected person’s feces for many weeks. It can contaminate food and water in unsanitary conditions. • People who don’t have symptoms can still pass the virus to others and make them sick. Prevention & Treatment There are two types of vaccine that can prevent polio: • Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) given as an injection in the leg or arm, depending on the patient’s age. Only IPV has been used in the United States since 2000. • Oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) is still used throughout much of the world. Polio vaccine protects children by preparing their bodies to fight the poliovirus. Almost all children (99 children out of 100) who get all the recommended doses of the inactivated polio vaccine will be protected from polio. Diagnosis, Specimens, and Containment Diagnosis Page last reviewed: October 24, 2019 Content source: Global Immunization • Global Immunization homePolio • What is Polioplus icon o Polio Elimination in the United States o Vaccination o For Travelers o Post-Polio Syndrome o For Healthcare Providers.

  • SWETA SINGH 860 Hrs 39 Min 19 Sec

    SWETA SINGH Sweta singh (jv-i/19/3208) BPT 3rd semester #jvwu #jvmission #CDA. topic -Tuberculosis Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious infection that usually attacks your lungs. It can also spread to other parts of your body, like your brain and spine. A type of bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes it. Can tuberculosis be cured? In the 20th century, TB was a leading cause of death in the United States. Today, most cases are cured with antibiotics. But it takes a long time. You have to take medications for at least 6 to 9 months. Tuberculosis Types A TB infection doesn’t always mean you’ll get sick. There are two forms of the disease: Latent TB. You have the germs in your body, but your immune system keeps them from spreading. You don’t have any symptoms, and you’re not contagious. But the infection is still alive and can one day become active. If you’re at high risk for re-activation -- for instance, if you have HIV, you had an infection in the past 2 years, your chest X-ray is unusual, or your immune system is weakened -- your doctor will give you medications to prevent active TB. Active TB. The germs multiply and make you sick. You can spread the disease to others. Ninety percent of active cases in adults come from a latent TB infection. A latent or active TB infection can also be drug-resistant, meaning certain medications don’t work against the bacteria. Tuberculosis Signs and Symptoms Latent TB doesn’t have symptoms. A skin or blood test can tell if you have it. Signs of active TB disease include: A cough that lasts more than 3 weeks Chest pain Coughing up blood Feeling tired all the time Night sweats Chills Fever Loss of appetite Weight loss Tuberculosis Risk Factors You could be more likely to get TB if: A friend, co-worker, or family member has active TB. You live in or have traveled to an area where TB is common, like Russia, Africa, Eastern Europe, Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean. You’re part of a group in which TB is more likely to spread, or you work or live with someone who is. This includes homeless people, people who have HIV, people in jail or prison, and people who inject drugs into their veins. You work or live in a hospital or nursing home. You’re a health care worker for patients at high risk of TB. You’re a smoker. Tuberculosis Tests and Diagnosis There are two common tests for tuberculosis: Skin test. This is also known as the Mantoux tuberculin skin test. A technician injects a small amount of fluid into the skin of your lower arm. After 2 or 3 days, they’ll check for swelling in your arm. If your results are positive, you probably have TB bacteria. But you could also get a false positive. If you’ve gotten a tuberculosis vaccine called bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), the test could say that you have TB when you really don’t. The results can also be false negative, saying that you don’t have TB when you really do, if you have a very new infection. You might get this test more than once. Blood test. These tests, also called interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs), measure the response when TB proteins are mixed with a small amount of your blood. Tuberculosis Treatment Your treatment will depend on your infection. If you have latent TB, your doctor will give you medication to kill the bacteria so the infection doesn’t become active. You might get isoniazid, rifapentine, or rifampin, either alone or combined. You’ll have to take the drugs for up to 9 months. If you see any signs of active TB, call your doctor right away. A combination of medicines also treats active TB. The most common are ethambutol, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and rifampin. You’ll take them for 6 to 12 months. If you have drug-resistant TB, your doctor might give you one or more different medicines. You may have to take them for much longer, up to 30 months, and they can cause more side effects.

  • PRACHI SHARMA 860 Hrs 42 Min 32 Sec

    ayushi pareek(jv-u/19/3202) BPT 3rd semester #jvwu #jvmission #CDA What Is Leukemia? Leukemia is a blood cancer caused by a rise in the number of white blood cells in your body. Those white blood cells crowd out the red blood cells and platelets that your body needs to be healthy. The extra white blood cells don’t work right. Leukemia Symptoms Different types of leukemia can cause different problems. You might not notice any signs in the early stages of some forms. When you do have symptoms, they may include: Weakness or fatigue Bruising or bleeding easily Fever or chills Infections that are severe or keep coming back Pain in your bones or joints Headaches Vomiting Seizures Weight loss Night sweats Shortness of breath Swollen lymph nodes or organs like your spleen How does leukemia happen? Blood has three types of cells: white blood cells that fight infection, red blood cells that carry oxygen, and platelets that help blood clot. Every day, your bone marrow makes billions of new blood cells, and most of them are red cells. When you have leukemia, your body makes more white cells than it needs. These leukemia cells can’t fight infection the way normal white blood cells do. And because there are so many of them, they start to affect the way your organs work. Over time, you may not have enough red blood cells to supply oxygen, enough platelets to clot your blood, or enough normal white blood cells to fight infection. Leukemia classifications Leukemia is grouped by how fast it develops and gets worse, and by which type of blood cell is involved. The first group, how fast it develops, is divided into acute and chronic leukemia. Acute leukemia happens when most of the abnormal blood cells don’t mature and can’t carry out normal functions. It can get bad very fast. Chronic leukemia happens when there are some immature cells, but others are normal and can work the way they should. It gets bad more slowly than acute forms do. Leukemia Diagnosis Your doctor will need to check for signs of leukemia in your blood or bone marrow. They might do tests including: Blood tests. A complete blood count (CBC) looks at the number and maturity of different types of blood cells. A blood smear looks for unusual or immature cells. Bone marrow biopsy. This test involves marrow taken from your pelvic bone with a long needle. It can tell your doctor what kind of leukemia you have and how severe it is. Spinal tap. This involves fluid from your spinal cord. It can tell your doctor whether the leukemia has spread. Imaging tests. Things like CT, MRI, and PET scans can spot signs of leukemia. Leukemia Treatments The treatment you get depends on the type of leukemia you have, how far it’s spread, and how healthy you are. The main options are: Chemotherapy Radiation Biologic therapy Targeted therapy Stem cell transplant Surgery

  • EKTA JAIN 860 Hrs 44 Min 20 Sec

    EKTA JAIN (jv-i/19/3200] BPT 3rd semester #jvwu #jvmission #CDA. topic -Tuberculosis Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious infection that usually attacks your lungs. It can also spread to other parts of your body, like your brain and spine. A type of bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes it. Can tuberculosis be cured? In the 20th century, TB was a leading cause of death in the United States. Today, most cases are cured with antibiotics. But it takes a long time. You have to take medications for at least 6 to 9 months. Tuberculosis Types A TB infection doesn’t always mean you’ll get sick. There are two forms of the disease: Latent TB. You have the germs in your body, but your immune system keeps them from spreading. You don’t have any symptoms, and you’re not contagious. But the infection is still alive and can one day become active. If you’re at high risk for re-activation -- for instance, if you have HIV, you had an infection in the past 2 years, your chest X-ray is unusual, or your immune system is weakened -- your doctor will give you medications to prevent active TB. Active TB. The germs multiply and make you sick. You can spread the disease to others. Ninety percent of active cases in adults come from a latent TB infection. A latent or active TB infection can also be drug-resistant, meaning certain medications don’t work against the bacteria. Tuberculosis Signs and Symptoms Latent TB doesn’t have symptoms. A skin or blood test can tell if you have it. Signs of active TB disease include: A cough that lasts more than 3 weeks Chest pain Coughing up blood Feeling tired all the time Night sweats Chills Fever Loss of appetite Weight loss Tuberculosis Risk Factors You could be more likely to get TB if: A friend, co-worker, or family member has active TB. You live in or have traveled to an area where TB is common, like Russia, Africa, Eastern Europe, Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean. You’re part of a group in which TB is more likely to spread, or you work or live with someone who is. This includes homeless people, people who have HIV, people in jail or prison, and people who inject drugs into their veins. You work or live in a hospital or nursing home. You’re a health care worker for patients at high risk of TB. You’re a smoker. Tuberculosis Tests and Diagnosis There are two common tests for tuberculosis: Skin test. This is also known as the Mantoux tuberculin skin test. A technician injects a small amount of fluid into the skin of your lower arm. After 2 or 3 days, they’ll check for swelling in your arm. If your results are positive, you probably have TB bacteria. But you could also get a false positive. If you’ve gotten a tuberculosis vaccine called bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), the test could say that you have TB when you really don’t. The results can also be false negative, saying that you don’t have TB when you really do, if you have a very new infection. You might get this test more than once. Blood test. These tests, also called interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs), measure the response when TB proteins are mixed with a small amount of your blood. Tuberculosis Treatment Your treatment will depend on your infection. If you have latent TB, your doctor will give you medication to kill the bacteria so the infection doesn’t become active. You might get isoniazid, rifapentine, or rifampin, either alone or combined. You’ll have to take the drugs for up to 9 months. If you see any signs of active TB, call your doctor right away. A combination of medicines also treats active TB. The most common are ethambutol, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and rifampin. You’ll take them for 6 to 12 months. If you have drug-resistant TB, your doctor might give you one or more different medicines. You may have to take them for much longer, up to 30 months, and they can cause more side effects.

  • PRIYANKA CHOUDHARY 860 Hrs 44 Min 38 Sec

    I am PRIYANKA CHOUDHARY from bpt 3rd sem. Enroll -JV-U/19/34471#jvwu #jvmission #cda #e-physio #physiotheraphyanddiagnostic. TOPIC-MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY • Causes • Inheritance • Dominant genes • Recessive gene Depends on the age when symptoms appear, and the types of symptoms that develop. • Risk • Because these are inherited disorders, risk include a family history of muscular dystrophy How Many People Are Affected It is estimated that between 50,000 -250,000 are affected annually. 1 per 3500 live male births 3. • Muscular dystrophy is a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders recognized by progressive degenerative muscle weakness and loss of muscle tissue (started in childhood). • Affect muscles strength and action. • Generalized or localized. • Skeletal muscle and other organs may involve • Limitation: Difficulties with walking or Maintaining posture, Muscle spasms. Neurological, Behavioral, Cardiac, or other Functional limitations. 4. Classification • Sex-linked: DMD, BMD, EDMD • Autosomal recessive: LGMD, infantile FSHD • Autosomal dominant: FSHD, distalMD, ocular MD, oculopharyngeal MD. 5. Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Guillaume Benjamin Amand Duchenne (French neurologist, 1860s) 6. • Etiology ▫ single gene defect ▫ Xp21.2 region ▫ absent dystrophin 7. • Most common • male, Turner syndrome • 1:3500 live male birth • 1/3 new mutation • 65% family history 8. Clinical manifestation • Onset : age 3-6 years • Progressive weakness • Pseudohypertrophy of calf muscles • Spinal deformity • Cardiopulmonary involvement • Mild - moderate MR 9. Natural history • Progress slowly and continuously • muscle weakness ▫ lower --> upper extremities • unable to ambulate: 10 year (7-12) • death from pulmonary/ cardiac failure: 2-3rd de cade 10. Pseudohypertrhophy of calf muscle, Tip toe gait forward tilt of pelvis, compensatory lordosis 11. Disappearance of lordosis while sitting 12. DMD: Diagnosis • Gait • Absent DTR • Ober test • Thomas test • Meyeron sign - child slips through truncal grasp • Macroglossia • Myocardial deterioration • IQ ~ 80 • Increase CPK (200x) • Myopathic change in EMG Bx: m. degeneration • Immunoblotting: Absence dystrophin • DNA mutation analysis 13. Becker Muscular Dystrophy Peter Emil Becker (German doctor, 1950s) 14. • Milder version of DMD • Etiology ▫ single gene defect ▫ short arm X chromosome ▫ altered size & decreased amount of dystrophin 15. • Less common ▫ 1: 30000 live male birth • Less severe • Family history: atypical MD • Similar & less severe than DMD • Onset: age > 7 years • Pseudohypertrophy of calf • Equinous and varus foot • High rate of scoliosis • Less frequent cardiac involvement Clinical features 16. Diagnosis • The same as DMD • Increase CPK (<200x) • Decrease dystrophin and/or altered size Natural history ▫ Slower progression ▫ ambulate until adolescence ▫ longer life expectancy Treatment ▫ the same as in DMD ▫ forefoot equinous: plantar release, midfoot dorsal- wedge osteotomy 17. Emery-Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy • Etiology ▫ X-linked recessive ▫ Xq28 ▫ Emerin protein (in nuclear membrane) • Epidemiology ▫ Male: typical phenotype ▫ Female carrier: partial • Clinical Features ▫ Muscle weakness ▫ Contracture  Neck extension, elbow, achillis tendon 18. Scoliosis: common, low incidence of progression Bradycardia, 1st degree AV block  sudden death 19. • Diagnosis ▫ Gower’s sign ▫ Mildly/moderately elevated CPK ▫ EMG: myopathic ▫ Normal dystrophin • Natural history ▫ 1st 10 y: mild weakness ▫ Later: contracture, cardiac abnormality ▫ 5th-6th decade: can ambulate ▫ Poor prognosis in obesity, untreated equinus contractures. 20. Treatment • Physical therapy ▫ Prevent contracture: neck, elbow, paravertebral muscles ▫ For slow progress elbow flexion contracture • Soft tissue contracture ▫ Achillis lengthening, posterior ankle capsulotomy + anterior transfer of tibialis posterior • Spinal stabilization ▫ For curve > 40 degrees • Cardiologic intervention ▫ Cardiac pacemaker 21. Limb - Girdle Muscular Dystrophy •Etiology ▫ Autosomal recessive at chromosome 15q ▫ Autosomal dominant at 5q •Epidemiology ▫ Common ▫ More benign 22. • Clinical manifestation ▫ Age of onset: 3rd decade ▫ Initial: pelvic/shoulder m. (proximal to distal) ▫ Similar distribution as DMD 23. Hemiatrophy 24. •Classification ▫ Pelvic girdle type  common ▫ Scapulohumeral type  rare • Diagnosis ▫ Same clinical as DMD/BMD carriers ▫ Moderately elevated CPK ▫ Normal dystrophin 25. • Natural history ▫ Slow progression ▫ After onset > 20 y: contracture & disability ▫ Rarely significant scoliosis • Treatment ▫ Similar to DMD ▫ Scoliosis: mild, no Rx. 26. Fascioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy • Etiology ▫ Autosomal dominant ▫ Gene defect (FRG1) ▫ Chromosome 4q35 • Epidemiology ▫ Female > male • Clinical manifestation ▫ Age of onset: late childhood/ early adult ▫ No cardiac, CNS involvement ▫ Winging scapula ▫ Markedly decreased shoulder flexion & abduction ▫ Horizontal clavicles ▫ Rare scoliosis 27. • Muscle weakness ▫ face, shoulder, upper arm • Sparing ▫ Deltoid ▫ Distal pectoralis major ▫ Erector spinae 28. • “Popeye” appearance ▫ Lack of facial mobility ▫ Incomplete eye closure ▫ Pouting lips ▫ Transverse smile ▫ Absence of eye and forehead wrinkles POPEYE ARMS 29. • Diagnosis ▫ PE, muscle biopsy ▫ Normal serum CPK • Natural history ▫ Slow progression ▫ Face, shoulder m.  pelvic girdle, tibialis ant ▫ Good life expectancy • Treatment ▫ Posterior scpulocostal fusion/ stabilization (scapuloplexy) 30. Distal Muscular Dystrophy • Autosomal dominant trait • Rare • Dysferlin (mb prot) defect • Age of onset: after 45 yrs • Initial involvement: intrinsic hands, claves, tibialis posterior • Spread proximally • Normal sensation 31. Congenital Muscular Dystrophy • Etiology ▫ Autosomal recessive ▫ Integrin, fugutin defect • Epidemiology ▫ Rare ▫ Both male and female • Classification ▫ Merosin-negative ▫ Merosin-positive ▫ Neuronal migration  Fukuyama  Muscle eye-brain  Wlaker-Warburg 32. Clinical manifestation • Stiffness of joint • Congenital hip dislocation, subluxation • Achillis tendon contracture, talipes equinovarus • Scoliosis 33. Diagnosis Muscle Bx: Perimysial and endomysial fibrosis Treatment Physical therapy Orthosis Soft tissue release Osteotomy 34. Oculopharyngeal Muscular Dystrophy • Autosomal dominant • Age of onset: 3rd decade • Ptosis in middle life • Pharyngeal involvement ▫ Dysarthria ▫ Dysphasia ▫ Repetitive regurgitation ▫ Frequently choking 35. Myotonic Muscular Dystrophy HATCHET FACIES 36. `Classical form of the disease is seen in adolescent or early adult life with variable presenting features. • Muscular weakness, •myotonia, •mental retardation, •cataract, •neonatal problems •18% remain asymptomatic. 37. Summary Clinical DMD LGMD FSMD DD CMD Incidence common less Not common Rare Rare Age of onset 3-6 y 2nd decade 2nd decade 20-77 y At/ after birth Sex Male Either sex M = F Either sex Both Inheritance Sex-linked recessive AR, rare AD AD AD Unknown Muscle involve. Proximal to distal Proximal to distal Face & shoulder to pelvic Distal Generalized Muscle spread until late Leg, hand, arm, face, larynx,eye Upper ex, calf Back ext, hip abd, quad Proximal - 38. Clinical DMD LGMD FSMD DD CMD Pseudo hypertrophy 80% calf < 33% Rare no No Contracture Common Late Mild, late Mild, late Severe Scoliosis Kyphoscoliosis Common, late Late - - ? Heart Hypertrophyt achycardia Very rare Very rare Very rare Not observed Intellectual decrease Normal Normal Normal ? Course Stead, rapid Slow Insidious benign Steady 39. Treatment is generally aimed at controlling the onset of symptoms to maximize the quality of life.

  • RITIKA JAIN 860 Hrs 45 Min 54 Sec

    I am Ritika jain from bpt 3rd sem. Enroll -JV-U/19/3195#jvwu #jvmission #cda #e-physio #physiotheraphyanddiagnostic. ToPIC-HIV AIDS  Acquired immuno deficiency syndrome  Fatal illness  Caused by a retrovirus HIV  It breaks down the bodys immune system, leaving the patient vulnerable to a host of life threatening opportunistic infections, neurological disorders or unusual malignancies. 3. Structure of HIV 4. 4 Epidemiology  Males>females  Occurs in all ages and ethnic groups  All areas of the country are affected  AIDS is now the second leading cause of death for all men aged 25-44 years  (Unintended injuries is #1 and heart disease is #3 for this age group) 5. 5 AIDS Worldwide 6. AIDS In India 6 7. HIV- Agent  It is a RNA virus  Which replicates in actively dividing T4 lymphocytes.  Unique ability to destroy T4 Helper cells  Reservoir- Once a person gets infected virus remains in his body lifelong. And the person is a symptomless carrier for years before the symptoms actually appear. 8.  Source – The virus is found in great concentrations in blood, CSF and semen.  Lower concentrations have been found in tears, saliva, breast milk, urine, cervical and vaginal secretions.  Also isolated from brain tissue, lymph nodes, bone marrow cells and skin.  However only blood and semen are known to transmit the virus. 9. 11 HIV in Body Fluids Semen 11,000 Vaginal Fluid 7,000 Blood 18,000 Amniotic Fluid 4,000 Saliva 1 Average number of HIV particles in 1 ml of these body fluids 10. Host  Age- Most cases are among sexually active people aged between age 20- 49 years.  High risk groups- Male homosexuals, hetero sexual partners, i.v. drug abusers, blood transfusion recipients, haemophiliacs and patients having STDs. 11. 13 HIV Transmission  HIV enters the bloodstream through: Open Cuts Breaks in the skin Mucous membranes Direct injection 12. 14 Routes of Transmission of HIV Sexual Contact: Male-to-male Male-to-female or vice versa Female-to-female Blood Exposure: Injecting drug use/needle sharing Occupational exposure Transfusion of blood products Perinatal: Transmission from mother to baby Breastfeeding 13. 15 Routes of Transmission of HIV Occupational Transmission Health care worker/ hospital staff Laboratory workers Other routes Organ transplantation Artificial insemination Needle-prick 14. Incubation Period  The incubation period is from HIV infection till development of AIDS.  It is from a few months to 10 years or even more.  However it is estimated that 75% of people infected with HIV will develop AIDS at the end of 10 years. 15. 17 HIV-Infected T-Cell HIV Virus T-Cell HIV Infected T-Cell New HIV Virus 16. Clinical Manifestations I] Initial Infection II] Asymptomatic Carrier State III] AIDS-related Complex(ARC) IV] AIDS 17. I] Initial Infection  Except for a generally mild illness of fever, sore throat and rash, which about 70% of the people experience a few weeks after the initial infection; Most HIV – infected people have no symptoms for the first five years.  However they can infect others, Once, infected the people a infected for life.  Antibody Response usually takes 2-12 weeks to appear in the blood stream. This period is called ‘the window period’. (Tests- Negative) 18. 20 HIV Infection And Antibody Response 6 month ~ Years ~ Years ~ Years ~ Years Virus Antibody Infection Occurs AIDS Symptoms Initial Stage---------------- --------Intermediate or Latent Stage----------------- Illness Stage Flu-like Symptoms Or No Symptoms Symptom-free < ---- ---- 19. 21 The Acute HIV Syndrome Follows 3-6 wks following primary infection 20. Asymptomatic Carrier State  Infected people with antibodies but without any overt signs of the disease, except persistent generalized lymphadenopathy.  It is however not firmly clear about how long does the asymptomatic stage lasts. 21. AIDS-Related Complex  Has illnesses caused by damage to immune system, but without the opportunistic infections and cancers associated with AIDS.  They may exhibit- Unexplained diarrhea(lasting more than a month), fatigue, malaise, loss of body weight(>10%), fever, night sweats. Signs of Mild infections like oral thrush, generalized lymphadenopathy, enlarged spleen. 22. 24 Common manifestation of AIDS Lung infection: P. Carinii pneumonia Gastrointestinal infection: candidiasis of mouth or oesophagus Skin infection: Kaposi’s sarcoma - red or violet macules or papules Central nervous System Infection: Toxoplasmosis Dementia Meningitis Primary CNS Lymphomas. Progressive Multifocal Leucoencephalopathy. 23. 25 Source: NACO Opportunistic Infections Among Reported AIDS Cases in India 24. 26 25. 27 Kaposi sarcoma Candidiasis Of Mouth 26. Swollen parts of the body 27. Deterioration of the body tissues 28. 30 Extreme Wt loss Lymphadenopathy 29. 31 P. Carinii pneumonia Primary CNS Lymphoma 30. Causes/Contributors of HIV Risk Structural Level Resource Availability Physical Environment Organizational Systems Laws/Policies Individual Susceptibility Macro Level Racism, Stigma, Poverty, Gender Inequality, Migration Community Level Community Norms Social Networks Social Capital/Collective Efficacy Relationships Individual Level Behavior Attitudes Knowledge Perceptions Biology 31. Primary • Primary HIV prevention refers to activity focused on preventing uninfected people becoming infected. Secondary • Secondary HIV prevention aimed at enabling people with HIV to stay well (e.g. testing to allow people to know their status; welfare rights advice; lifestyle behaviour ; anti–discriminatory lobbying). Tertiary • Tertiary HIV prevention aims to minimise the effects of ill–health experienced by someone who is symptomatic with HIV disease (e.g. the prophylactic use of drugs and complementary therapies ) 34 32. Diagnosis of HIV • HIV antibody test – using different antigen &/ or with different principle of the test • Viral antigen test - used for screening blood donors in USA • Detection of viral nucleic acid in blood. • Determining the CD4 counts to assess the disease progression. 33. Testing-  ICTC centre (Integrated Counseling & Testing Centre)  District Hospitals  Medical colleges  Free HIV testing  Confidential counseling  Referral to nearest ART (Anti Retroviral Therapy) centre . 34. ANTIRETROVIRAL DRUGS NRTI NNRTI PI Zidovudine (AZT)* Nevirapine(NVP)* Indinavir(IDV)* Lamivudine (3TC)* Efavirenz(EFV)* Nelfinavir(NFV)* Stavudine (d4T)* Delavirdine(DLV) Saquinavir(SQV)* Didanosine (ddl)* INTEGRASE INHIBITORS Ritonavir(RTV)* Zalcitabine(ddC)* Raltegravir Amprenavir(APV) Abacavir(ABC)* CCR5 antagonists Lopinavir(LPV)* Tenofovir(TFV)* Maraviroc Atazanavir(ATV)* Emtricitabine(FTC) Foseamprenavir MAMC- Feb 2009 FusionInhibitor:Enfuvirtide(T-20) * Available in India , available under national programme Cost of Therapy reduced from Rs.30,000 in 1998 to Rs1000 per month in 2006, no. of pills from 32 to 1 or 2 per day, 35. PREVENTION  Avoid multiple partners – use Condoms.  Use sterile needles each time for injection  Never share needles  Avoid unnecessary blood transfusions  All pregnant women should be tested for HIV 36. Prevention  Use standard work precautions – hand hygiene, personal protective gear.  Proper disposal of biomedical waste.  Immunization against HBV  Education 37. Occupational Exposure HCW comes in contact with potentially infectious body fluids due to –  A percutaneous injury ( needle stick, cut with sharp object)  Contact with mucous membrane  Contact with non intact skin (abraded, chapped, dermatitis ) 38. Management of Exposure site  Do not panic  Skin  Wash wound & surrounding with soap/water  Rinse well  Do not scrub  Do not use Antiseptic or Skin washes 39. Management of Exposure site  Splash of Blood/OPIM  Eye  Eye irrigation with water or Saline  If using contact lens leave them in place while irrigating .Remove once eye is cleaned remove them & clean  Mouth  Spit fluid immediately  Rinse mouth thoroughly with water / saline repeatedly  Do not use soap or disinfectant 40. PEP Prescription  Contact ART specialist  Decision of starting PEP based on Exposure type & HIV status of source  Decide PEP regimens  Basic regimen 2 drug combination  Expanded regimen 3 drug combination  If source person is on ART drugs expert should be consulted after starting 2 drugs 41. Post Exposure Prophylaxis  In India recommended for occupational exposure  It should be started as early as possible (within 72 hours)  ARV is given for 4 weeks  HIV testing should be done at baseline, 6wks, 3mths & 6mths 42. HIV from being a VIRTUAL DEATH SENTENCE has been brought down to being a CHRONIC MANAGABLE DISEASE 43. Thank you!

  • SNEHA KUMARI 860 Hrs 47 Min 17 Sec

    #Sneha Kumari (JV-D/19/3229) DPT 03 SEM # JVWU # UNIVERSITY # JV Mission # CDA # Topic- Posture in physiotherpy # Introduction Good posture is about more than standing up straight so you can look your best.It is an important part of your long-term health.Making sure that you hold your body the right way, whether you are moving or still, can prevent pain, injuries, and other health problems.# Posture is defined as the attitude assumed by the body either with support during the course of muscular activity, or as a result of the coordinated action performed by a group of muscles working to maintain the stability. There are two types Dynamic posture is how you hold yourself when you are moving, like when you are walking, running, or bending over to pick up something. It is usually required to form an efficient basis for movement. Muscles and non-contractile structures have to work to adapt to changing circumstances Static posture is how you hold yourself when you are not moving, like when you are sitting, standing, or sleeping. Body segments are aligned and maintained in fixed positions. This is usually achieved by co-ordination and interaction of various muscle groups which are working statically to counteract gravity and other forces.# Posture Assessment In an ideal posture, the line of gravity should pass through specific points of the body. This can simply be observed or evaluated using a plumb line to assess the midline of the body.This line should pass through the lobe of the ear, the shoulder joint, the hip joint, though the greater trochanter of the femur, then slightly anterior to the midline of the knee joint and lastly anterior to the lateral malleolus.When viewed from either the front or the back, the vertical line passing through the bodys centre of gravity should theoretically bisect the body into two equal halves, with the bodyweight distributed evenly between the two feet.# Examples of Types of Standing Posture Lordotic posture- Lordosis refers to the normal inward curvature of the spine. When this curve is exaggerated it is usually referred to as hyperlordosis. The pelvis is usually tilted anteriorly.Sway Back Posture- In this type of posture, there is forward head, hyper-extension of the cervical spine, flexion of the thoracic spine, lumbar spine extension, posterior tilt of the pelvis, hip and knee hyper-extension and ankle slightly plantar,Forward head posture - Describes the shift of the head forward with the chin poking out. It is caused by increased flexion of the lower cervical spine and upper thoracic spine with increased extension of the upper cervical spine and extension of the occiput on C1. Kyphosis - An increased convex curve observed in the thoracic or sacral regions of the spine.# THANK YOU

  • MS. MEENAKSHI RAWAL 860 Hrs 51 Min 10 Sec

    I am MEENAKSHIRAWAL from bpt 3rd sem. Enroll -JV-U/19/3211#jvwu #jvmission #cda #e-physio #physiotheraphyanddiagnostic. ToPIC-HIV AIDS  Acquired immuno deficiency syndrome  Fatal illness  Caused by a retrovirus HIV  It breaks down the bodys immune system, leaving the patient vulnerable to a host of life threatening opportunistic infections, neurological disorders or unusual malignancies. 3. Structure of HIV 4. 4 Epidemiology  Males>females  Occurs in all ages and ethnic groups  All areas of the country are affected  AIDS is now the second leading cause of death for all men aged 25-44 years  (Unintended injuries is #1 and heart disease is #3 for this age group) 5. 5 AIDS Worldwide 6. AIDS In India 6 7. HIV- Agent  It is a RNA virus  Which replicates in actively dividing T4 lymphocytes.  Unique ability to destroy T4 Helper cells  Reservoir- Once a person gets infected virus remains in his body lifelong. And the person is a symptomless carrier for years before the symptoms actually appear. 8.  Source – The virus is found in great concentrations in blood, CSF and semen.  Lower concentrations have been found in tears, saliva, breast milk, urine, cervical and vaginal secretions.  Also isolated from brain tissue, lymph nodes, bone marrow cells and skin.  However only blood and semen are known to transmit the virus. 9. 11 HIV in Body Fluids Semen 11,000 Vaginal Fluid 7,000 Blood 18,000 Amniotic Fluid 4,000 Saliva 1 Average number of HIV particles in 1 ml of these body fluids 10. Host  Age- Most cases are among sexually active people aged between age 20- 49 years.  High risk groups- Male homosexuals, hetero sexual partners, i.v. drug abusers, blood transfusion recipients, haemophiliacs and patients having STDs. 11. 13 HIV Transmission  HIV enters the bloodstream through: Open Cuts Breaks in the skin Mucous membranes Direct injection 12. 14 Routes of Transmission of HIV Sexual Contact: Male-to-male Male-to-female or vice versa Female-to-female Blood Exposure: Injecting drug use/needle sharing Occupational exposure Transfusion of blood products Perinatal: Transmission from mother to baby Breastfeeding 13. 15 Routes of Transmission of HIV Occupational Transmission Health care worker/ hospital staff Laboratory workers Other routes Organ transplantation Artificial insemination Needle-prick 14. Incubation Period  The incubation period is from HIV infection till development of AIDS.  It is from a few months to 10 years or even more.  However it is estimated that 75% of people infected with HIV will develop AIDS at the end of 10 years. 15. 17 HIV-Infected T-Cell HIV Virus T-Cell HIV Infected T-Cell New HIV Virus 16. Clinical Manifestations I] Initial Infection II] Asymptomatic Carrier State III] AIDS-related Complex(ARC) IV] AIDS 17. I] Initial Infection  Except for a generally mild illness of fever, sore throat and rash, which about 70% of the people experience a few weeks after the initial infection; Most HIV – infected people have no symptoms for the first five years.  However they can infect others, Once, infected the people a infected for life.  Antibody Response usually takes 2-12 weeks to appear in the blood stream. This period is called ‘the window period’. (Tests- Negative) 18. 20 HIV Infection And Antibody Response 6 month ~ Years ~ Years ~ Years ~ Years Virus Antibody Infection Occurs AIDS Symptoms Initial Stage---------------- --------Intermediate or Latent Stage----------------- Illness Stage Flu-like Symptoms Or No Symptoms Symptom-free < ---- ---- 19. 21 The Acute HIV Syndrome Follows 3-6 wks following primary infection 20. Asymptomatic Carrier State  Infected people with antibodies but without any overt signs of the disease, except persistent generalized lymphadenopathy.  It is however not firmly clear about how long does the asymptomatic stage lasts. 21. AIDS-Related Complex  Has illnesses caused by damage to immune system, but without the opportunistic infections and cancers associated with AIDS.  They may exhibit- Unexplained diarrhea(lasting more than a month), fatigue, malaise, loss of body weight(>10%), fever, night sweats. Signs of Mild infections like oral thrush, generalized lymphadenopathy, enlarged spleen. 22. 24 Common manifestation of AIDS Lung infection: P. Carinii pneumonia Gastrointestinal infection: candidiasis of mouth or oesophagus Skin infection: Kaposi’s sarcoma - red or violet macules or papules Central nervous System Infection: Toxoplasmosis Dementia Meningitis Primary CNS Lymphomas. Progressive Multifocal Leucoencephalopathy. 23. 25 Source: NACO Opportunistic Infections Among Reported AIDS Cases in India 24. 26 25. 27 Kaposi sarcoma Candidiasis Of Mouth 26. Swollen parts of the body 27. Deterioration of the body tissues 28. 30 Extreme Wt loss Lymphadenopathy 29. 31 P. Carinii pneumonia Primary CNS Lymphoma 30. Causes/Contributors of HIV Risk Structural Level Resource Availability Physical Environment Organizational Systems Laws/Policies Individual Susceptibility Macro Level Racism, Stigma, Poverty, Gender Inequality, Migration Community Level Community Norms Social Networks Social Capital/Collective Efficacy Relationships Individual Level Behavior Attitudes Knowledge Perceptions Biology 31. Primary • Primary HIV prevention refers to activity focused on preventing uninfected people becoming infected. Secondary • Secondary HIV prevention aimed at enabling people with HIV to stay well (e.g. testing to allow people to know their status; welfare rights advice; lifestyle behaviour ; anti–discriminatory lobbying). Tertiary • Tertiary HIV prevention aims to minimise the effects of ill–health experienced by someone who is symptomatic with HIV disease (e.g. the prophylactic use of drugs and complementary therapies ) 34 32. Diagnosis of HIV • HIV antibody test – using different antigen &/ or with different principle of the test • Viral antigen test - used for screening blood donors in USA • Detection of viral nucleic acid in blood. • Determining the CD4 counts to assess the disease progression. 33. Testing-  ICTC centre (Integrated Counseling & Testing Centre)  District Hospitals  Medical colleges  Free HIV testing  Confidential counseling  Referral to nearest ART (Anti Retroviral Therapy) centre . 34. ANTIRETROVIRAL DRUGS NRTI NNRTI PI Zidovudine (AZT)* Nevirapine(NVP)* Indinavir(IDV)* Lamivudine (3TC)* Efavirenz(EFV)* Nelfinavir(NFV)* Stavudine (d4T)* Delavirdine(DLV) Saquinavir(SQV)* Didanosine (ddl)* INTEGRASE INHIBITORS Ritonavir(RTV)* Zalcitabine(ddC)* Raltegravir Amprenavir(APV) Abacavir(ABC)* CCR5 antagonists Lopinavir(LPV)* Tenofovir(TFV)* Maraviroc Atazanavir(ATV)* Emtricitabine(FTC) Foseamprenavir MAMC- Feb 2009 FusionInhibitor:Enfuvirtide(T-20) * Available in India , available under national programme Cost of Therapy reduced from Rs.30,000 in 1998 to Rs1000 per month in 2006, no. of pills from 32 to 1 or 2 per day, 35. PREVENTION  Avoid multiple partners – use Condoms.  Use sterile needles each time for injection  Never share needles  Avoid unnecessary blood transfusions  All pregnant women should be tested for HIV 36. Prevention  Use standard work precautions – hand hygiene, personal protective gear.  Proper disposal of biomedical waste.  Immunization against HBV  Education 37. Occupational Exposure HCW comes in contact with potentially infectious body fluids due to –  A percutaneous injury ( needle stick, cut with sharp object)  Contact with mucous membrane  Contact with non intact skin (abraded, chapped, dermatitis ) 38. Management of Exposure site  Do not panic  Skin  Wash wound & surrounding with soap/water  Rinse well  Do not scrub  Do not use Antiseptic or Skin washes 39. Management of Exposure site  Splash of Blood/OPIM  Eye  Eye irrigation with water or Saline  If using contact lens leave them in place while irrigating .Remove once eye is cleaned remove them & clean  Mouth  Spit fluid immediately  Rinse mouth thoroughly with water / saline repeatedly  Do not use soap or disinfectant 40. PEP Prescription  Contact ART specialist  Decision of starting PEP based on Exposure type & HIV status of source  Decide PEP regimens  Basic regimen 2 drug combination  Expanded regimen 3 drug combination  If source person is on ART drugs expert should be consulted after starting 2 drugs 41. Post Exposure Prophylaxis  In India recommended for occupational exposure  It should be started as early as possible (within 72 hours)  ARV is given for 4 weeks  HIV testing should be done at baseline, 6wks, 3mths & 6mths 42. HIV from being a VIRTUAL DEATH SENTENCE has been brought down to being a CHRONIC MANAGABLE DISEASE 43. Thank you!

  • PRACHI SHARMA 860 Hrs 51 Min 37 Sec

    SWETA SINGH Sweta singh (jv-i/19/3208) BPT 3rd semester #jvwu #jvmission #CDA. topic -Tuberculosis Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious infection that usually attacks your lungs. It can also spread to other parts of your body, like your brain and spine. A type of bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes it. Can tuberculosis be cured? In the 20th century, TB was a leading cause of death in the United States. Today, most cases are cured with antibiotics. But it takes a long time. You have to take medications for at least 6 to 9 months. Tuberculosis Types A TB infection doesn’t always mean you’ll get sick. There are two forms of the disease: Latent TB. You have the germs in your body, but your immune system keeps them from spreading. You don’t have any symptoms, and you’re not contagious. But the infection is still alive and can one day become active. If you’re at high risk for re-activation -- for instance, if you have HIV, you had an infection in the past 2 years, your chest X-ray is unusual, or your immune system is weakened -- your doctor will give you medications to prevent active TB. Active TB. The germs multiply and make you sick. You can spread the disease to others. Ninety percent of active cases in adults come from a latent TB infection. A latent or active TB infection can also be drug-resistant, meaning certain medications don’t work against the bacteria. Tuberculosis Signs and Symptoms Latent TB doesn’t have symptoms. A skin or blood test can tell if you have it. Signs of active TB disease include: A cough that lasts more than 3 weeks Chest pain Coughing up blood Feeling tired all the time Night sweats Chills Fever Loss of appetite Weight loss Tuberculosis Risk Factors You could be more likely to get TB if: A friend, co-worker, or family member has active TB. You live in or have traveled to an area where TB is common, like Russia, Africa, Eastern Europe, Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean. You’re part of a group in which TB is more likely to spread, or you work or live with someone who is. This includes homeless people, people who have HIV, people in jail or prison, and people who inject drugs into their veins. You work or live in a hospital or nursing home. You’re a health care worker for patients at high risk of TB. You’re a smoker. Tuberculosis Tests and Diagnosis There are two common tests for tuberculosis: Skin test. This is also known as the Mantoux tuberculin skin test. A technician injects a small amount of fluid into the skin of your lower arm. After 2 or 3 days, they’ll check for swelling in your arm. If your results are positive, you probably have TB bacteria. But you could also get a false positive. If you’ve gotten a tuberculosis vaccine called bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), the test could say that you have TB when you really don’t. The results can also be false negative, saying that you don’t have TB when you really do, if you have a very new infection. You might get this test more than once. Blood test. These tests, also called interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs), measure the response when TB proteins are mixed with a small amount of your blood. Tuberculosis Treatment Your treatment will depend on your infection. If you have latent TB, your doctor will give you medication to kill the bacteria so the infection doesn’t become active. You might get isoniazid, rifapentine, or rifampin, either alone or combined. You’ll have to take the drugs for up to 9 months. If you see any signs of active TB, call your doctor right away. A combination of medicines also treats active TB. The most common are ethambutol, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and rifampin. You’ll take them for 6 to 12 months. If you have drug-resistant TB, your doctor might give you one or more different medicines. You may have to take them for much longer, up to 30 months, and they can cause more side effects.

  • PRACHI SHARMA 860 Hrs 56 Min 38 Sec

    i am prachi sharma from bpt 3rd sem, jv-u/19/3201#jvwu#cda HIV is a virus that damages the immune system. Untreated HIV affects and kills CD4 cells, which are a type of immune cell called T cell. Over time, as HIV kills more CD4 cells, the body is more likely to get various types of conditions and cancers. HIV is transmitted through bodily fluids that include: blood semen vaginal and rectal fluids breast milk The virus isn’t transferred in air or water, or through casual contact. Because HIV inserts itself into the DNA of cells, it’s a lifelong condition and currently there’s no drug that eliminates HIV from the body, although many scientists are working to find one. However, with medical care, including treatment called antiretroviral therapy, it’s possible to manage HIV and live with the virus for many years. Without treatment, a person with HIV is likely to develop a serious condition called the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, known as AIDS. At that point, the immune system is too weak to successfully respond against other diseases, infections, and conditions. Untreated, life expectancy with end stage AIDS is about 3 yearsTrusted Source. With antiretroviral therapy, HIV can be well-managed, and life expectancy can be nearly the same as someone who has not contracted HIV. It’s estimated that 1.2 million Americans are currently living with HIV. Of those people, 1 in 7 don’t know they have the virus. HIV can cause changes throughout the body. Learn about the effects of HIV on the different systems in the body. What is AIDS? AIDS is a disease that can develop in people with HIV. It’s the most advanced stage of HIV. But just because a person has HIV doesn’t mean AIDS will develop. HIV kills CD4 cells. Healthy adults generally have a CD4 count of 500 to 1,600 per cubic millimeter. A person with HIV whose CD4 count falls below 200 per cubic millimeter will be diagnosed with AIDS. A person can also be diagnosed with AIDS if they have HIV and develop an opportunistic infection or cancer that’s rare in people who don’t have HIV. An opportunistic infection such as Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia is one that only occurs in a severely immunocompromised person, such as someone with advanced HIV infection (AIDS). Untreated, HIV can progress to AIDS within a decade. There’s currently no cure for AIDS, and without treatment, life expectancy after diagnosis is about 3 yearsTrusted Source. This may be shorter if the person develops a severe opportunistic illness. However, treatment with antiretroviral drugs can prevent AIDS from developing. If AIDS does develop, it means that the immune system is severely compromised, that is, weakened to the point where it can no longer successfully respond against most diseases and infections. That makes the person living with AIDS vulnerable to a wide range of illnesses, including: pneumonia tuberculosis oral thrush, a fungal condition in the mouth or throat cytomegalovirus (CMV), a type of herpes virus cryptococcal meningitis, a fungal condition in the brain toxoplasmosis, a brain condition caused by a parasite cryptosporidiosis, a condition caused by an intestinal parasite cancer, including Kaposi sarcoma (KS) and lymphoma The shortened life expectancy linked with untreated AIDS isn’t a direct result of the syndrome itself. Rather, it’s a result of the diseases and complications that arise from having an immune system weakened by AIDS. Learn more about possible complications that can arise from HIV and AIDS. HIV and AIDS: What’s the connection? To develop AIDS, a person has to have contracted HIV. But having HIV doesn’t necessarily mean that someone will develop AIDS. Cases of HIV progress through three stages: stage 1: acute stage, the first few weeks after transmission stage 2: clinical latency, or chronic stage stage 3: AIDS As HIV lowers the CD4 cell count, the immune system weakens. A typical adult’s CD4 count is 500 to 1,500 per cubic millimeter. A person with a count below 200 is considered to have AIDS. How quickly a case of HIV progresses through the chronic stage varies significantly from person to person. Without treatment, it can last up to a decade before advancing to AIDS. With treatment, it can last indefinitely. There’s currently no cure for HIV, but it can be managed. People with HIV often have a near-normal lifespan with early treatment with antiretroviral therapy. Along those same lines, there’s technically no cure for AIDS currently. However, treatment can increase a person’s CD4 count to the point where they’re considered to no longer have AIDS. (This point is a count of 200 or higher.) Also, treatment can typically help manage opportunistic infections. HIV and AIDS are related, but they’re not the same thing. Learn more about the difference between HIV and AIDS. powered by Rubicon Project HIV transmission: Know the facts Anyone can contract HIV. The virus is transmitted in bodily fluids that include: blood semen vaginal and rectal fluids breast milk Some of the ways HIV is transferred from person to person include: through vaginal or anal sex — the most common route of transmission by sharing needles, syringes, and other items for injection drug use by sharing tattoo equipment without sterilizing it between uses during pregnancy, labor, or delivery from a pregnant person to their baby during breastfeeding through “premastication,” or chewing a baby’s food before feeding it to them through exposure to the blood, semen, vaginal and rectal fluids, and breast milk of someone living with HIV, such as through a needle stick The virus can also be transmitted through a blood transfusion or organ and tissue transplant. However, rigorous testing for HIV among blood, organ, and tissue donors ensures that this is very rare in the United States. It’s theoretically possible, but considered extremely rare, for HIV to be transmitted through: oral sex (only if there are bleeding gums or open sores in the person’s mouth) being bitten by a person with HIV (only if the saliva is bloody or there are open sores in the person’s mouth) contact between broken skin, wounds, or mucous membranes and the blood of someone living with HIV HIV does NOT transfer through: skin-to-skin contact hugging, shaking hands, or kissing air or water sharing food or drinks, including drinking fountains saliva, tears, or sweat (unless mixed with the blood of a person with HIV) sharing a toilet, towels, or bedding mosquitoes or other insects It’s important to note that if a person living with HIV is being treated and has a persistently undetectable viral load, it’s virtually impossible to transmit the virus to another person. Learn more about HIV transmission. Causes of HIV HIV is a variation of a virus that can be transmitted to African chimpanzees. Scientists suspect the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) jumped from chimps to humans when people consumed chimpanzee meat containing the virus. Once inside the human population, the virus mutated into what we now know as HIV. This likely occurred as long ago as the 1920s. HIV spread from person to person throughout Africa over the course of several decades. Eventually, the virus migrated to other parts of the world. Scientists first discovered HIV in a human blood sample in 1959. It’s thought that HIV has existed in the United States since the 1970s, but it didn’t start to hit public consciousness until the 1980s. Learn more about the history of HIV and AIDS in the United States. Causes of AIDS AIDS is caused by HIV. A person can’t get AIDS if they haven’t contracted HIV. Healthy individuals have a CD4 count of 500 to 1,500 per cubic millimeter. Without treatment, HIV continues to multiply and destroy CD4 cells. If a person’s CD4 count falls below 200, they have AIDS. Also, if someone with HIV develops an opportunistic infection associated with HIV, they can still be diagnosed with AIDS, even if their CD4 count is above 200. What tests are used to diagnose HIV? Several different tests can be used to diagnose HIV. Healthcare providers determine which test is best for each person. Antibody/antigen tests Antibody/antigen tests are the most commonly used tests. They can show positive results typically within 18–45 daysTrusted Source after someone initially contracts HIV. These tests check the blood for antibodies and antigens. An antibody is a type of protein the body makes to respond to an infection. An antigen, on the other hand, is the part of the virus that activates the immune system. Antibody tests These tests check the blood solely for antibodies. Between 23 and 90 daysTrusted Source after transmission, most people will develop detectable HIV antibodies, which can be found in the blood or saliva. These tests are done using blood tests or mouth swabs, and there’s no preparation necessary. Some tests provide results in 30 minutes or less and can be performed in a healthcare provider’s office or clinic. Other antibody tests can be done at home: OraQuick HIV Test. An oral swab provides results in as little as 20 minutes. Home Access HIV-1 Test System. After the person pricks their finger, they send a blood sample to a licensed laboratory. They can remain anonymous and call for results the next business day. If someone suspects they’ve been exposed to HIV but tested negative in a home test, they should repeat the test in 3 months. If they have a positive result, they should follow up with their healthcare provider to confirm. Nucleic acid test (NAT) This expensive test isn’t used for general screening. It’s for people who have early symptoms of HIV or have a known risk factor. This test doesn’t look for antibodies; it looks for the virus itself. It takes from 5 to 21 days for HIV to be detectable in the blood. This test is usually accompanied or confirmed by an antibody test. Today, it’s easier than ever to get tested for HIV. Learn more about HIV home testing options. What’s the HIV window period? As soon as someone contracts HIV, it starts to reproduce in their body. The person’s immune system reacts to the antigens (parts of the virus) by producing antibodies (cells that take countermeasures against the virus). The time between exposure to HIV and when it becomes detectable in the blood is called the HIV window period. Most people develop detectable HIV antibodies within 23 to 90 days after transmission. If a person takes an HIV test during the window period, it’s likely they’ll receive a negative result. However, they can still transmit the virus to others during this time. If someone thinks they may have been exposed to HIV but tested negative during this time, they should repeat the test in a few months to confirm (the timing depends on the test used). And during that time, they need to use condoms or other barrier methods to prevent possibly spreading HIV. Someone who tests negative during the window might benefit from post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). This is medication taken after an exposure to prevent getting HIV. PEP needs to be taken as soon as possible after the exposure; it should be taken no later than 72 hours after exposure but ideally before then. Another way to prevent getting HIV is pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). A combination of HIV drugs taken before potential exposure to HIV, PrEP can lower the risk of contracting or transmitting HIV when taken consistently. Timing is important when testing for HIV. Learn more about how timing affects HIV test results. Early symptoms of HIV The first few weeks after someone contracts HIV is called the acute infection stage. During this time, the virus reproduces rapidly. The person’s immune system responds by producing HIV antibodies, which are proteins that take measures to respond against infection. During this stage, some people have no symptoms at first. However, many people experience symptoms in the first month or so after contracting the virus, but they often don’t realize HIV causes those symptoms. This is because symptoms of the acute stage can be very similar to those of the flu or other seasonal viruses, such as: they may be mild to severe they may come and go they may last anywhere from a few days to several weeks Early symptoms of HIV can include: fever chills swollen lymph nodes general aches and pains skin rash sore throat headache nausea upset stomach Because these symptoms are similar to common illnesses like the flu, the person who has them might not think they need to see a healthcare provider. And even if they do, their healthcare provider might suspect the flu or mononucleosis and might not even consider HIV. Whether a person has symptoms or not, during this period their viral load is very high. The viral load is the amount of HIV found in the bloodstream. A high viral load means that HIV can be easily transmitted to someone else during this time. Initial HIV symptoms usually resolve within a few months as the person enters the chronic, or clinical latency, stage of HIV. This stage can last many years or even decades with treatment. HIV symptoms can vary from person to person. Learn more about the early symptoms of HIV. HEALTHLINE EVENT Will you get vaccinated? We ask Lesley Stahl, Alyssa Milano, Brian Stokes Mitchell, and more in our Live Town Hall: COVID-19 One Year Retrospective on Thursday, March 11. What are the symptoms of HIV? After the first month or so, HIV enters the clinical latency stage. This stage can last from a few years to a few decades. Some people don’t have any symptoms during this time, while others may have minimal or nonspecific symptoms. A nonspecific symptom is a symptom that doesn’t pertain to one specific disease or condition. These nonspecific symptoms may include: headaches and other aches and pains swollen lymph nodes recurrent fevers night sweats fatigue nausea vomiting diarrhea weight loss skin rashes recurrent oral or vaginal yeast infections pneumonia shingles As with the early stage, HIV is still transferable during this time even without symptoms and can be transmitted to another person. However, a person won’t know they have HIV unless they get tested. If someone has these symptoms and thinks they may have been exposed to HIV, it’s important that they get tested. HIV symptoms at this stage may come and go, or they may progress rapidly. This progression can be slowed substantially with treatment. With the consistent use of this antiretroviral therapy, chronic HIV can last for decades and will likely not develop into AIDS, if treatment was started early enough. Learn more about how HIV symptoms can progress over time. Is rash a symptom of HIV? Many people with HIV experience changes to their skin. Rash is often one of the first symptoms of an HIV infection. Generally, an HIV rash appears as multiple small red lesions that are flat and raised. Rash related to HIV HIV makes someone more susceptible to skin problems because the virus destroys immune system cells that take measures against infection. Co-infections that can cause rash include: molluscum contagiosum herpes simplex shingles The cause of the rash determines: how it looks how long it lasts how it can be treated depends on the cause Rash related to medication While rash can be caused by HIV co-infections, it can also be caused by medication. Some drugs used to treat HIV or other conditions can cause a rash. This type of rash usually appears within a week or 2 weeks of starting a new medication. Sometimes the rash will clear up on its own. If it doesn’t, a change in medications may be needed. Rash due to an allergic reaction to medication can be serious. Other symptoms of an allergic reaction include: trouble breathing or swallowing dizziness fever Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is a rare allergic reaction to HIV medication. Symptoms include fever and swelling of the face and tongue. A blistering rash, which can involve the skin and mucous membranes, appears and spreads quickly. When 30 percentTrusted Source of the skin is affected, it’s called toxic epidermal necrolysis, which is a life threatening condition. If this develops, emergency medical care is needed. While rash can be linked with HIV or HIV medications, it’s important to keep in mind that rashes are common and can have many other causes. Learn more about HIV rash. HIV symptoms in men: Is there a difference? Symptoms of HIV vary from person to person, but they’re similar in men and women. These symptoms can come and go or get progressively worse. If a person has been exposed to HIV, they may also have been exposed to other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). These include: gonorrhea chlamydia syphilis trichomoniasis Men, and those with a penis, may be more likely than women to notice symptoms of STIs such as sores on their genitals. However, men typically don’t seek medical care as often as women. Learn more about HIV symptoms in men. HIV symptoms in women: Is there a difference? For the most part, symptoms of HIV are similar in men and women. However, symptoms they experience overall may differ based on the different risks men and women face if they have HIV. Both men and women with HIV are at increased risk for STIs. However, women, and those with a vagina, may be less likely than men to notice small spots or other changes to their genitals. In addition, women with HIV are at increased risk for: recurrent vaginal yeast infections other vaginal infections, including bacterial vaginosis pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) menstrual cycle changes human papillomavirus (HPV), which can cause genital warts and lead to cervical cancer While not related to HIV symptoms, another risk for women with HIV is that the virus can be transmitted to a baby during pregnancy. However, antiretroviral therapy is considered safe during pregnancy. Women who are treated with antiretroviral therapy are at very low risk for transmitting HIV to their baby during pregnancy and delivery. Breastfeeding is also affected in women with HIV. The virus can be transferred to a baby through breast milk. In the United States and other settings where formula is accessible and safe, it’s recommended that women with HIV not breastfeed their babies. For these women, use of formula is encouraged. Options besides formula include pasteurized banked human milk. For women who may have been exposed to HIV, it’s important to know what symptoms to look for. Learn more about HIV symptoms in women. What are the symptoms of AIDS? AIDS refers to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. With this condition, the immune system is weakened due to HIV that’s typically gone untreated for many years. If HIV is found and treated early with antiretroviral therapy, a person will usually not develop AIDS. People with HIV may develop AIDS if their HIV is not diagnosed until late or if they know they have HIV but don’t consistently take their antiretroviral therapy. They may also develop AIDS if they have a type of HIV that’s resistant to (doesn’t respond to) the antiretroviral treatment. Without proper and consistent treatment, people living with HIV can develop AIDS sooner. By that time, the immune system is quite damaged and has a harder time generating a response to infection and disease. With the use of antiretroviral therapy, a person can maintain a chronic HIV diagnosis without developing AIDS for decades. Symptoms of AIDS can include: recurrent fever chronic swollen lymph glands, especially of the armpits, neck, and groin chronic fatigue night sweats dark splotches under the skin or inside the mouth, nose, or eyelids sores, spots, or lesions of the mouth and tongue, genitals, or anus bumps, lesions, or rashes of the skin recurrent or chronic diarrhea rapid weight loss neurologic problems such as trouble concentrating, memory loss, and confusion anxiety and depression Antiretroviral therapy controls the virus and usually prevents progression to AIDS. Other infections and complications of AIDS can also be treated. That treatment must be tailored to the individual needs of the person. Treatment options for HIV Treatment should begin as soon as possible after a diagnosis of HIV, regardless of viral load. The main treatment for HIV is antiretroviral therapy, a combination of daily medications that stop the virus from reproducing. This helps protect CD4 cells, keeping the immune system strong enough to take measures against disease. Antiretroviral therapy helps keep HIV from progressing to AIDS. It also helps reduce the risk of transmitting HIV to others. When treatment is effective, the viral load will be “undetectable.” The person still has HIV, but the virus is not visible in test results. However, the virus is still in the body. And if that person stops taking antiretroviral therapy, the viral load will increase again, and the HIV can again start attacking CD4 cells. Learn more about how HIV treatments work. HIV medications Many antiretroviral therapy medications are approved to treat HIV. They work to prevent HIV from reproducing and destroying CD4 cells, which help the immune system generate a response to infection. This helps reduce the risk of developing complications related to HIV, as well as transmitting the virus to others. These antiretroviral medications are grouped into six classes: nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) protease inhibitors fusion inhibitors CCR5 antagonists, also known as entry inhibitors integrase strand transfer inhibitors Treatment regimens The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) generally recommends a starting regimen of three HIV medications from at least two of these drug classes. This combination helps prevent HIV from forming resistance to medications. (Resistance means the drug no longer works to treat the virus.) Many of the antiretroviral medications are combined with others so that a person with HIV typically takes only one or two pills a day. A healthcare provider will help a person with HIV choose a regimen based on their overall health and personal circumstances. These medications must be taken every day, exactly as prescribed. If they’re not taken appropriately, viral resistance can develop, and a new regimen may be needed. Blood testing will help determine if the regimen is working to keep the viral load down and the CD4 count up. If an antiretroviral therapy regimen isn’t working, the person’s healthcare provider will switch them to a different regimen that’s more effective. Side effects and costs Side effects of antiretroviral therapy vary and may include nausea, headache, and dizziness. These symptoms are often temporary and disappear with time. Serious side effects can include swelling of the mouth and tongue and liver or kidney damage. If side effects are severe, the medications can be adjusted. Costs for antiretroviral therapy vary according to geographic location and type of insurance coverage. Some pharmaceutical companies have assistance programs to help lower the cost. Learn more about the drugs used to treat HIV. HIV prevention Although many researchers are working to develop one, there’s currently no vaccine available to prevent the transmission of HIV. However, taking certain steps can help prevent the transmission of HIV. Safer sex The most common way for HIV to be transferred is through anal or vaginal sex without a condom or other barrier method. This risk can’t be completely eliminated unless sex is avoided entirely, but the risk can be lowered considerably by taking a few precautions. A person concerned about their risk for HIV should: Get tested for HIV. It’s important they learn their status and that of their partner. Get tested for other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). If they test positive for one, they should get it treated, because having an STI increases the risk of contracting HIV. Use condoms. They should learn the correct way to use condoms and use them every time they have sex, whether it’s through vaginal or anal intercourse. It’s important to keep in mind that pre-seminal fluids (which come out before male ejaculation) can contain HIV. Take their medications as directed if they have HIV. This lowers the risk of transmitting the virus to their sexual partner. Shop for condoms online. Other prevention methods Other steps to help prevent the spread of HIV include: Avoid sharing needles or other paraphernalia. HIV is transmitted through blood and can be contracted by using materials that have come in contact with the blood of someone who has HIV. Consider PEP. A person who has been exposed to HIV should contact their healthcare provider about obtaining post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). PEP can reduce the risk of contracting HIV. It consists of three antiretroviral medications given for 28 days. PEP should be started as soon as possible after exposure but before 36 to 72 hours have passed. Consider PrEP. A person has a higher chance of contracting HIV should talk to their healthcare provider about pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). If taken consistently, it can lower the risk of acquiring HIV. PrEP is a combination of two drugs available in pill form. Healthcare providers can offer more information on these and other ways to prevent the spread of HIV. Check here for more information on STI prevention. Living with HIV: What to expect and tips for coping More than 1.2 million people in the United States are living with HIV. It’s different for everybody, but with treatment, many can expect to live a long, productive life. The most important thing is to start antiretroviral treatment as soon as possible. By taking medications exactly as prescribed, people living with HIV can keep their viral load low and their immune system strong. It’s also important to follow up with a healthcare provider regularly. Other ways people living with HIV can improve their health include: Make their health their top priority. Steps to help people living with HIV feel their best include: fueling their body with a well-balanced diet exercising regularly getting plenty of rest avoiding tobacco and other drugs reporting any new symptoms to their healthcare provider right away Focus on their mental health. They could consider seeing a licensed therapist who is experienced in treating people with HIV. Use safer sex practices. Talk to their sexual partner(s). Get tested for other STIs. And use condoms and other barrier methods every time they have vaginal or anal sex. Talk to their healthcare provider about PrEP and PEP. When used consistently by a person without HIV, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) can lower the chances of transmission. PrEP is most often recommended for people without HIV in relationships with people with HIV, but it can be used in other situations as well. Online sources for finding a PrEP provider include PrEP Locator and PleasePrEPMe. Surround themselves with loved ones. When first telling people about their diagnosis, they can start slow by telling someone who can maintain their confidence. They may want to choose someone who won’t judge them and who will support them in caring for their health. Get support. They can join an HIV support group, either in person or online, so they can meet with others who face the same concerns they have. Their healthcare provider can also steer them toward a variety of resources in their area. There are many ways to get the most out of life when living with HIV. Hear some real stories of people living with HIV. HIV life expectancy: Know the facts In the 1990s, a 20-year-old person with HIV had a 19-year life expectancyTrusted Source. By 2011, a 20-year-old person with HIV could expect to live another 53 years. It’s a dramatic improvement, due in large part to antiretroviral therapy. With proper treatment, many people with HIV can expect a normal or near- normal lifespan. Of course, many things affect life expectancy for a person with HIV. Among them are: CD4 cell count viral load serious HIV-related illnesses, including hepatitis misusing drugs smoking access, adherence, and response to treatment other health conditions age Where a person lives also matters. People in the United States and other developed countries may be more likely to have access to antiretroviral therapy. Consistent use of these drugs helps prevent HIV from progressing to AIDS. When HIV advances to AIDS, life expectancy without treatment is about 3 yearsTrusted Source. In 2017, about 20.9 million peopleTrusted Source living with HIV were using antiretroviral therapy. Life expectancy statistics are just general guidelines. People living with HIV should talk to their healthcare provider to learn more about what they can expect. Learn more about life expectancy and long-term outlook with HIV. Is there a vaccine for HIV? Currently, there are no vaccines to prevent or treat HIV. Research and testing on experimental vaccines are ongoing, but none are close to being approved for general use. HIV is a complicated virus. It mutates (changes) rapidly and is often able to fend off immune system responses. Only a small number of people who have HIV develop broadly neutralizing antibodies, the kind of antibodies that can respond to a range of HIV strains. The first HIV vaccine efficacy study in 7 years was underway in South Africa in 2016. The experimental vaccine is an updated version of one used in a 2009 trial that took place in Thailand. A 3.5-year follow-up after vaccination showed the vaccine was 31.2 percent effective in preventing HIV transmission. The study involves 5,400 men and women from South Africa. In 2016 in South Africa, about 270,000 peopleTrusted Source contracted HIV. The results of the study are expected in 2021. Other late-stage, multinational vaccine clinical trials are also currently underway. Other research into an HIV vaccine is also ongoing. While there’s still no vaccine to prevent HIV, people with HIV can benefit from other vaccines to prevent HIV-related illnesses. Here are the CDC recommendations: pneumonia: recommendedTrusted Source for all children younger than 2 and all adults 65 and older influenza: recommendedTrusted Source for all people over 6 months old annually with rare exceptions hepatitis A and B: ask your doctor if you should get vaccinated for hepatitis A and B, especially if you are in a higher risk groupTrusted Source meningitis: the meningococcal conjugate vaccination is recommendedTrusted Source for all preteens and teens at 11 to 12 years old with a booster dose at 16, or anyone at risk. The serogroup B meningococcal vaccination is recommended for anyone 10 years or older with increased risk. shingles: recommendedTrusted Source for those ages 50 or older Learn why an HIV vaccine is so difficult to develop. HIV statistics Here are today’s HIV numbers: In 2019, about 38 million people worldwide were living with HIV. Of those, 1.8 million were children below the age 15 years. At the end of 2019, 25.4 million people living with HIV were using antiretroviral therapy. Since the pandemic began, 75.7 million people have contracted HIV, and AIDS-related complications have claimed 32.7 million lives. In 2019, 690,000 people died from AIDS-related diseases. This is a decline from 1.9 million in 2005. Eastern and Southern Africa are the hardest hit. In 2019, 20.7 million people in these areas were living with HIV, and 730,000 more contracted the virus. The region has more than half of all people living with HIV worldwide. Adult and adolescent women accounted for 19 percent of new HIV diagnoses in the United States in 2018. Almost half of all new cases occur in African Americans. Left untreated, a woman with HIV has a 15–45 percentTrusted Source chance of passing HIV to her baby during pregnancy or breastfeeding. With antiretroviral therapy throughout pregnancy and avoidance of breastfeeding, the risk is less than 5 percentTrusted Source. In the 1990s, a 20-year-old person with HIV had a life expectancyTrusted Source of 19 years. By 2011, it had improved to 53 years. Today, life expectancy is near normalTrusted Source if antiretroviral therapy is started soon after contracting HIV. As access to antiretroviral therapy continues to improve around the world, these statistics will hopefully keep changing. Learn more statistics about HIV. ADVERTISEMENT Last medically reviewed on November 5, 2020 34 sourcescollapsed

  • MORI URVI  ABHAY SINGH 860 Hrs 57 Min 24 Sec

    #Urvi Mori(JV-D/19/3232) DPT 03 SEM # JVWU # UNIVERSITY # JV Mission # CDA # Topic- Posture in physiotherpy # Introduction Good posture is about more than standing up straight so you can look your best.It is an important part of your long-term health.Making sure that you hold your body the right way, whether you are moving or still, can prevent pain, injuries, and other health problems.# Posture is defined as the attitude assumed by the body either with support during the course of muscular activity, or as a result of the coordinated action performed by a group of muscles working to maintain the stability. There are two types Dynamic posture is how you hold yourself when you are moving, like when you are walking, running, or bending over to pick up something. It is usually required to form an efficient basis for movement. Muscles and non-contractile structures have to work to adapt to changing circumstances Static posture is how you hold yourself when you are not moving, like when you are sitting, standing, or sleeping. Body segments are aligned and maintained in fixed positions. This is usually achieved by co-ordination and interaction of various muscle groups which are working statically to counteract gravity and other forces.# Posture Assessment In an ideal posture, the line of gravity should pass through specific points of the body. This can simply be observed or evaluated using a plumb line to assess the midline of the body.This line should pass through the lobe of the ear, the shoulder joint, the hip joint, though the greater trochanter of the femur, then slightly anterior to the midline of the knee joint and lastly anterior to the lateral malleolus.When viewed from either the front or the back, the vertical line passing through the bodys centre of gravity should theoretically bisect the body into two equal halves, with the bodyweight distributed evenly between the two feet.# Examples of Types of Standing Posture Lordotic posture- Lordosis refers to the normal inward curvature of the spine. When this curve is exaggerated it is usually referred to as hyperlordosis. The pelvis is usually tilted anteriorly.Sway Back Posture- In this type of posture, there is forward head, hyper-extension of the cervical spine, flexion of the thoracic spine, lumbar spine extension, posterior tilt of the pelvis, hip and knee hyper-extension and ankle slightly plantar,Forward head posture - Describes the shift of the head forward with the chin poking out. It is caused by increased flexion of the lower cervical spine and upper thoracic spine with increased extension of the upper cervical spine and extension of the occiput on C1. Kyphosis - An increased convex curve observed in the thoracic or sacral regions of the spine.# HANK YOU

  • NEHA KUMARI 861 Hrs 02 Min 57 Sec

    I am NEHA KUMARI from bpt 3rd sem. Enroll -JV-U/19/3209#jvwu #jvmission #cda #e-physio #physiotheraphyanddiagnostic. TOPIC-TUBERCULOSIS.Definition  Tuberculosis (TB) is a potentially fatal contagious disease that can affect almost any part of the body but is mainly an infection of the lungs. Neo-latin word : - Round nodule/Swelling - Condition “Tubercle” “Osis” 3. Causative Organisms Mycobacterium tuberculosis Mycobacterium Bovis Human Animals 4. Other causative organisms  Mycobacterium africanum  Mycobacterium microti Non-Mycobacterium Genus  Mycobacterium leprae  Mycobacterium avium  Mycobacterium asiaticum M. africanum M. Bovis M. Canetti M. microti M. tuberculosis complex 5.  Discovered in 1882 by Robert Koch. 6. Classification Pulmonary TB - Primary Disease - Secondary Disease Extra pulmonary i. Lymph node TB ii. Pleural TB iii. TB of upper airways iv. Skeletal TB v. Genitourinary TB vi. Miliary TB vii. Pericardial TB viii. Gastrointestinal TB ix. Tuberculous Meningitis x. Less common forms 7. Epidemiology 8.  In 2011,there were an estimated 8.7million incidence cases of TB globally.  Its equivalent to 125 cases in 1,00,000 population. Asian : 59% African : 26% Eastern Mediterranean Region: 7.7% The European Region : 4.3% Region of the America : 3% 9. Incidence of Tuberculosis 10. Spread of Tuberculosis 11. Severe Symptoms Persistent cough Chest pain Coughing with bloody sputum Shortness of breath Urine discoloration Cloudy & reddish urine Fever with chills. Fatigue 12. Based on types of TB 13. Pathogenesis 14. Types A. Pulmonary TB :- 1. Primary Tuberculosis :-  The infection of an individual who has not been previously infected or immunised is called Primary tuberculosis or Ghon’s complex or childhood tuberculosis.  Lesions forming after infection is peripheral and accompanied by hilar which may not be detectable on chest radiography. 2. Secondary Tuberculosis : The infection that individual who has been previously infected or sensitized is called secondary or post primary or reinfection or chronic tuberculosis. 15. B} Extra Pulmonary TB :- • 20% of patients of TB Patient • Affected sites in body are :- 1) Lymph node TB ( tuberculuous lymphadenitis):- • Seen frequently in HIV infected patients. • Symptoms :- Painless swelling of lymph nodes most commonly at cervical and Supraclavical (Scrofula) • Systemic systems are limited to HIV infected patients. • 2) Pleural TB :- Involvement of pleura is common in Primary TB and results from penetration of tubercle bacilli into pleural space. 16.  Involvement of larynx, pharynx and epiglottis.  Symptoms :- Dysphagia, chronic productive cough 3) TB of Upper airways :- 4) Genitourinary TB :- • 15% of all Extra pulmonary cases. • Any part of the genitourinary tract get infected. • Symptoms :- Urinary frequency, Dysuria, Hematuria. 5) Skeletal TB :- • Involvement of weight bearing parts like spine, hip, knee. • Symptoms :- Pain in hip joints n knees, swelling of knees, trauma. 6) Gastrointestinal TB :- • Involvement of any part of GI Tract. • Symptoms :- Abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss 17. 7) TB Meningitis & Tuberculoma :-  5% of All Extra pulmonary TB  Results from Hematogenous spead of 10 & 20 TB. 8) TB Pericardiatis :- • 1- 8% of All Extra pulmonary TB cases. • Spreads mainly in mediastinal or hilar nodes or from lungs. 9) Miliary or disseminated TB :- • Results from Hematogenous spread of Tubercle Bacilli. • Spread is due to entry of infection into pulmonary vein producing lesions in different extra pulmonary sites. 10) Less common Extra Pulmonary TB • uveitis, panophthalmitis, painfull Hypersensitivity related phlyctenular conjuctivis. 18. Diagnosis 1.Bacteriological test: a. Zeihl-Neelsen stain b. Auramine stain(fluorescence microscopy) 2. Sputum culture test: a. Lowenstein –Jensen(LJ) solid medium: 4-18 weeks b. Liquid medium : 8-14 days c. Agar medium : 7 to 14 days 19. 3.Radiography: Chest X-Ray(CXR) 4.Nucleic acid amplification:  Species identification ; several hours  Low sensitivity, high cost  Most useful for the rapid confirmation of tuberculosis in persons with AFB-positive sputa  Utility  AFB-negative pulmonary tuberculosis  Extra pulmonary tuberculosis 20. 5.Tuberculin skin test (PPD)  Injection of fluid into the skin of the lower arm.  48-72 hours later – checked for a reaction.  Diagnosis is based on the size of the wheal. 1 dose = 0.1 ml contains 0.04µg Tuberculin PPD. 21. Tuberculin test interpretation 22. Pathogenesis of tuberculin test 23. 6. Other biological examinations  Cell count(lymphocytes)  Protein(Pandy and Rivalta tests) – Ascites, pleural effusion and meningitis. 24. Preventive measures 1) Mask 2) BCG vaccine 3) Regular medical follow up 4) Isolation of Patient 5) Ventilation 6) Natural sunlight 7) UV germicidal irradiation 25. BCG vaccine  Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG).  First used in 1921.  Only vaccine available today for protection against tuberculosis.  It is most effective in protecting children from the disease.  Given 0.1 ml intradermally.  Duration of Protection 15 to 20 years  Efficacy 0 to 80%.  Should be given to all healthy infants as soon as possible after birth unless the child presented with symptomatic HIV infection. 26. Management 27. Drugs MOA Diagram Isoniazid Inhibits mycolic acid synthesis. RIFAMPICIN Blocks RNA synthesis by blocking DNA dependent RNA polymerase PYRAZINAMIDE •Bactericidal-slowly metabolizing organism within acidic environment of Phagocyte or caseous granuloma. 28. Drugs MOA Diagram ETHAMBUTOL •Bacteriostatic •Inhibition of Arabinosyl Transferase STREPTOMYCIN •Inhibition of Protein synthesis by disruption of ribosomal function 29. ADRs and its Management 30. Dosage regimen  Intensive phase + continuation phase  HREZ (2 months) + HRE (4 months) 31. Treatment regimen according to WHO ISONIAZID (H) RIFAMPICIN (R) PYRAZINAMIDE (Z) ETHAMBUTOL (E) STREPTOMYCIN (S) 32. DOTS DOTS - Directly observed treatment, short-course  DOT means that a trained health care worker or other designated individual provides the prescribed TB drugs and watches the patient swallow every dose. 33. Multi-Drug Resistance TB TB caused by strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that are resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampicin, the most effective anti- TB drug. Globally, 3.6% are estimated to have MDR-TB. Almost 50% of MDR-TB cases worldwide are estimated to occur in China and India. 34. MDR-TB among new TB cases 35. MDR-TB in previously treated cases 36. Extensively drug resistance TB  Extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) is a form of TB caused by bacteria that are resistant to isoniazid and rifampicin (i.e. MDR-TB) as well as any fluoroquinolone and any of the second-line anti-TB injectable drugs (amikacin, kanamycin or capreomycin). 37. Tuberculosis and HIV  Worldwide the number of people infected with both HIV and TB is rising.  The HIV virus damages the body’s immune system and accelerates the speed at which TB progresses from a harmless infection to a life threatening condition.  The estimated 10% activation of dormant TB infection over the life span of an infected person, is increased to 10% activation in one year, if HIV infection is superimposed.  It is the opputunistic infection that most frequently kills HIV-positive people. 38. Epidemiological Impact  Reactivation of latent infection- People who are infected with both HIV and TB are 25 to 30 times more likely to develop TB again than people only infected with TB.  Primary Infection- New tubercular infection in people with HIV can progress to active disease very quickly.  Recurring infection- in people who were cured of TB. 39. Diagnosis of TB in people with HIV  HIV positive people with pulmonary TB may have a higher frequency of having sputum negative smears.  The tuberculin test often fails to work, because the immune system has been damaged by HIV; It may not even show a response even though the person is infected with TB.  Chest Xray will show less cavitation.  Cases of Extra pulmonary TB are more common. 40. Thank you! l

  • NIHARIKA CHOUDAHRY 861 Hrs 04 Min 56 Sec

    Namaste ....Myself JVn Niharika choudhary BPT 3RD SEM #bpt #cda #jvwu enroll:jv-u/19/3608 INTRODUCTION........ Good posture is about more than standing up straight so you can look your best. It is an important part of your long-term health. Making sure that you hold your body the right way, whether you are moving or still, can prevent pain, injuries, and other health problems. What is posture? Posture is defined as the attitude assumed by the body either with support during the course of muscular activity, or as a result of the coordinated action performed by a group of muscles working to maintain the stability. There are two types 1Dynamic posture is how you hold yourself when you are moving, like when you are walking, running, or bending over to pick up something. It is usually required to form an efficient basis for movement. Muscles and non-contractile structures have to work to adapt to changing circumstances. 2Static posture is how you hold yourself when you are not moving, like when you are sitting, standing, or sleeping. Body segments are aligned and maintained in fixed positions. This is usually achieved by co-ordination and interaction of various muscle groups which are working statically to counteract gravity and other forces. Optimal posture.... It is important to make sure that you have good dynamic and static posture Posture Assessment The key to good posture is the position of the spine. The spine has three natural curves - at your neck, mid/upper back, and lower back. Correct posture should maintain these curves, but not increase them. Your head should be above your shoulders, and the top of your shoulder should be over the hips. In an ideal posture, the line of gravity should pass through specific points of the body. This can simply be observed or evaluated using a plumb line to assess the midline of the body. This line should pass through the lobe of the ear, the shoulder joint, the hip joint, though the greater trochanter of the femur, then slightly anterior to the midline of the knee joint and lastly anterior to the lateral malleolus. When viewed from either the front or the back, the vertical line passing through the bodys centre of gravity should theoretically bisect the body into two equal halves, with the bodyweight distributed evenly between the two feet. While assessing posture, symmetry and rotations/tilts should be observed in the anterior, lateral and posterior views. Assess: Head alignment Cervical, thoracic and lumbar curvature Shoulder level symmetry Pelvic symmetry Hip, knee and ankle joints In sitting: The ears should be aligned with the shoulders and the shoulders aligned with the hips The shoulders should be relaxed and elbows are close to the sides of the body The angle of the elbows, hips and knees is approximately 90 degrees The feet flat on the floor The forearms are parallel to the floor with wrists straight Feet should rest comfortably on a surface Posture and Health Poor posture can be bad for your health. Slouching or slumping over can Misalign your musculoskeletal system Increase pressure on the spine, making it more prone to injury and degeneration Cause neck, shoulder, and back pain Decrease flexibility Affect how well joints move Affect balance and increase risk of falling Make it harder to digest food Make it harder to breathe The Relationship Between Posture and Pain.... There are many theories that bad posture is a contributing factor in low back pain, some studies have shown that improved posture and postural control can have a positive effect on pain. Physiotherapy...... Education, teach client to: Be mindful of posture during everyday activities, like watching television, washing dishes, or walking Stay active. Any kind of exercise may help improve your posture, but certain types of exercises can be especially helpful. eg. yoga, tai chi, and other classes that focuses on body awareness. It is also a good idea to do exercises that strengthen your core. Maintain a healthy weight. Extra weight can weaken abdominal muscles, cause problems for pelvis and spine, and contribute to low back pain. Wear comfortable, low-heeled shoes. High heels, for example, can throw off balance and force person to walk differently. This puts more stress on muscles and harms posture. Make sure work surfaces are at a comfortable height for you, whether sitting in front of a computer, making dinner, or eating a meal Physiotherapist can identify posture style and provide hands-on treatment, posture correction exercises and helpful home products for you to achieve great posture. Some of objectives are listed below: Obtain Normal Joint Range of Motion. Necessary to allow you achieve good posture alignment. eg Thoracic Manual Therapy. Obtain Normal Muscle Length. If muscles too tight client will be unable to attain a normal posture. Obtain Good Muscle Strength. To be able to pull clients body into the correct posture. Obtain Excellent Muscle Endurance. Postural muscles need to able to work for hours on end. Poor endurance is a major factor in habitual poor posture. Normal Nerve Extensibility. Neural tissue needs enough length to allow for normal posture. Good Spatial Awareness. ie where you are in space. Provide with verbal and visual feedback and assist with postural taping. Perfect Posture Habits. The hardest part is the initial change, then reinforcing the correct habit. Muscle Action in Posture The balanced posture of the body reduces the work done by the muscles in maintaining it in an erect posture. It has been determined (using electromyography) that, in general The intrinsic muscles of the feet are quiescent, because of the support provided by the ligaments. Soleus is constantly active because gravity tends to pull the body forward over the feet. Gastrocnemius and the deep posterior tibial muscles are less frequently active. Tibialis anterior is less active (unless high heels are being worn). Quadriceps and the Hamstrings are generally not as active Iliopsoas is constantly active. Gluteus maximus is inactive. Gluteus medius and tensor fascia latae are active to counteract lateral postural sway. Erector Spinae is active, counteracting gravitys pull forwards. The abdominal muscles remain quiescent, although the lower fibres of the Internal obliques are active in order to protect the inguinal canal Examples of Types of Standing Posture Some of the examples of faulty posture can be as follows: Posture Types. Lordotic posture- Lordosis refers to the normal inward curvature of the spine. When this curve is exaggerated it is usually referred to as hyperlordosis. The pelvis is usually tilted anteriorly. Sway Back Posture- In this type of posture, there is forward head, hyper-extension of the cervical spine, flexion of the thoracic spine, lumbar spine extension, posterior tilt of the pelvis, hip and knee hyper-extension and ankle slightly plantarflexed. Flat back posture- In this type of posture, there is forward head, extension of the cervical spine, extension of the thoracic spine, loss of lumbar lordosis and posterior pelvic tilt. Forward head posture - Describes the shift of the head forward with the chin poking out. It is caused by increased flexion of the lower cervical spine and upper thoracic spine with increased extension of the upper cervical spine and extension of the occiput on C1. Scoliosis - A deviation of the normal vertical line of the spine, consisting of a lateral curvature and rotation of the vertebrae. Scoliosis is considered when there is at least 10° of spinal angulation on the posterior-anterior radiograph associated with vertebral rotation. This is a 3 dimensional C or S shaped sideways curve of the spine. Kyphosis - An increased convex curve observed in the thoracic or sacral regions of the spine. Final Remarks..... It is important to make sure clients have good dynamic and static posture. Just knowing how to correct posture is not enough to achieve a change actual habit. Bodies uses learnt motor patterns to perform everyday activities. When we sit, stand, walk or move - our body follows previously learnt motor patterns. If your body has learned to slouch - thats what it will do. Physiotherapists via correcting and improving posture through assessment and treatment techniques can lead to many positive health outcomes. for clients.

  • MANSI JOSHI 861 Hrs 06 Min 16 Sec

    Namaste ....Myself JVn Mansi Joshi BPT 3RD SEM #bpt #cda #jvwu enroll:jv-u/19/3192 INTRODUCTION........ Good posture is about more than standing up straight so you can look your best. It is an important part of your long-term health. Making sure that you hold your body the right way, whether you are moving or still, can prevent pain, injuries, and other health problems. What is posture? Posture is defined as the attitude assumed by the body either with support during the course of muscular activity, or as a result of the coordinated action performed by a group of muscles working to maintain the stability. There are two types 1Dynamic posture is how you hold yourself when you are moving, like when you are walking, running, or bending over to pick up something. It is usually required to form an efficient basis for movement. Muscles and non-contractile structures have to work to adapt to changing circumstances. 2Static posture is how you hold yourself when you are not moving, like when you are sitting, standing, or sleeping. Body segments are aligned and maintained in fixed positions. This is usually achieved by co-ordination and interaction of various muscle groups which are working statically to counteract gravity and other forces. Optimal posture.... It is important to make sure that you have good dynamic and static posture Posture Assessment The key to good posture is the position of the spine. The spine has three natural curves - at your neck, mid/upper back, and lower back. Correct posture should maintain these curves, but not increase them. Your head should be above your shoulders, and the top of your shoulder should be over the hips. In an ideal posture, the line of gravity should pass through specific points of the body. This can simply be observed or evaluated using a plumb line to assess the midline of the body. This line should pass through the lobe of the ear, the shoulder joint, the hip joint, though the greater trochanter of the femur, then slightly anterior to the midline of the knee joint and lastly anterior to the lateral malleolus. When viewed from either the front or the back, the vertical line passing through the bodys centre of gravity should theoretically bisect the body into two equal halves, with the bodyweight distributed evenly between the two feet. While assessing posture, symmetry and rotations/tilts should be observed in the anterior, lateral and posterior views. Assess: Head alignment Cervical, thoracic and lumbar curvature Shoulder level symmetry Pelvic symmetry Hip, knee and ankle joints In sitting: The ears should be aligned with the shoulders and the shoulders aligned with the hips The shoulders should be relaxed and elbows are close to the sides of the body The angle of the elbows, hips and knees is approximately 90 degrees The feet flat on the floor The forearms are parallel to the floor with wrists straight Feet should rest comfortably on a surface Posture and Health Poor posture can be bad for your health. Slouching or slumping over can Misalign your musculoskeletal system Increase pressure on the spine, making it more prone to injury and degeneration Cause neck, shoulder, and back pain Decrease flexibility Affect how well joints move Affect balance and increase risk of falling Make it harder to digest food Make it harder to breathe The Relationship Between Posture and Pain.... There are many theories that bad posture is a contributing factor in low back pain, some studies have shown that improved posture and postural control can have a positive effect on pain. Physiotherapy...... Education, teach client to: Be mindful of posture during everyday activities, like watching television, washing dishes, or walking Stay active. Any kind of exercise may help improve your posture, but certain types of exercises can be especially helpful. eg. yoga, tai chi, and other classes that focuses on body awareness. It is also a good idea to do exercises that strengthen your core. Maintain a healthy weight. Extra weight can weaken abdominal muscles, cause problems for pelvis and spine, and contribute to low back pain. Wear comfortable, low-heeled shoes. High heels, for example, can throw off balance and force person to walk differently. This puts more stress on muscles and harms posture. Make sure work surfaces are at a comfortable height for you, whether sitting in front of a computer, making dinner, or eating a meal Physiotherapist can identify posture style and provide hands-on treatment, posture correction exercises and helpful home products for you to achieve great posture. Some of objectives are listed below: Obtain Normal Joint Range of Motion. Necessary to allow you achieve good posture alignment. eg Thoracic Manual Therapy. Obtain Normal Muscle Length. If muscles too tight client will be unable to attain a normal posture. Obtain Good Muscle Strength. To be able to pull clients body into the correct posture. Obtain Excellent Muscle Endurance. Postural muscles need to able to work for hours on end. Poor endurance is a major factor in habitual poor posture. Normal Nerve Extensibility. Neural tissue needs enough length to allow for normal posture. Good Spatial Awareness. ie where you are in space. Provide with verbal and visual feedback and assist with postural taping. Perfect Posture Habits. The hardest part is the initial change, then reinforcing the correct habit. Muscle Action in Posture The balanced posture of the body reduces the work done by the muscles in maintaining it in an erect posture. It has been determined (using electromyography) that, in general The intrinsic muscles of the feet are quiescent, because of the support provided by the ligaments. Soleus is constantly active because gravity tends to pull the body forward over the feet. Gastrocnemius and the deep posterior tibial muscles are less frequently active. Tibialis anterior is less active (unless high heels are being worn). Quadriceps and the Hamstrings are generally not as active Iliopsoas is constantly active. Gluteus maximus is inactive. Gluteus medius and tensor fascia latae are active to counteract lateral postural sway. Erector Spinae is active, counteracting gravitys pull forwards. The abdominal muscles remain quiescent, although the lower fibres of the Internal obliques are active in order to protect the inguinal canal Examples of Types of Standing Posture Some of the examples of faulty posture can be as follows: Posture Types. Lordotic posture- Lordosis refers to the normal inward curvature of the spine. When this curve is exaggerated it is usually referred to as hyperlordosis. The pelvis is usually tilted anteriorly. Sway Back Posture- In this type of posture, there is forward head, hyper-extension of the cervical spine, flexion of the thoracic spine, lumbar spine extension, posterior tilt of the pelvis, hip and knee hyper-extension and ankle slightly plantarflexed. Flat back posture- In this type of posture, there is forward head, extension of the cervical spine, extension of the thoracic spine, loss of lumbar lordosis and posterior pelvic tilt. Forward head posture - Describes the shift of the head forward with the chin poking out. It is caused by increased flexion of the lower cervical spine and upper thoracic spine with increased extension of the upper cervical spine and extension of the occiput on C1. Scoliosis - A deviation of the normal vertical line of the spine, consisting of a lateral curvature and rotation of the vertebrae. Scoliosis is considered when there is at least 10° of spinal angulation on the posterior-anterior radiograph associated with vertebral rotation. This is a 3 dimensional C or S shaped sideways curve of the spine. Kyphosis - An increased convex curve observed in the thoracic or sacral regions of the spine. Final Remarks..... It is important to make sure clients have good dynamic and static posture. Just knowing how to correct posture is not enough to achieve a change actual habit. Bodies uses learnt motor patterns to perform everyday activities. When we sit, stand, walk or move - our body follows previously learnt motor patterns. If your body has learned to slouch - thats what it will do. Physiotherapists via correcting and improving posture through assessment and treatment techniques can lead to many positive health outcomes. for clients.

  • Mansi Chhipa 1411 Hrs 20 Min 16 Sec

    I am MANSI CHHIPA from bpt 3rd sem. Enroll -JV-U/19/3060#jvwu #jvmission #cda #e-physio #physiotheraphyanddiagnostic. topic- JOINT REPLACEMENT. What is joint replacement ? Joint replacement surgery is a procedure that many people undergo to relieve chronic joint pain and improve joint mobility when other non-surgical treatments have proved unsuccessful. If you are dealing with persistent joint pain and a limited range of motion then joint replacement surgery may be worth considering to restore your overall quality of life and get you back to doing the things you enjoy, pain free. Causes of joint replacement- Severe joint pain Stiffness Limping Muscle weakness Limited range of motion Swelling Symptoms Signs and symptoms of an infected joint replacement include: Increased pain or stiffness in a previously well-functioning joint Swelling Warmth and redness around the wound Wound drainage Fevers, chills and night sweats Fatigue Treatment- Nonsurgical Treatment In some cases, just the skin and soft tissues around the joint are infected, and the infection has not spread deep into the artificial joint itself. This is called a "superficial infection." If the infection is caught early, your doctor may prescribe intravenous (IV) or oral antibiotics. This treatment has a good success rate for early superficial infections. Surgical Treatment Infections that go beyond the superficial tissues and gain deep access to the artificial joint almost always require surgical treatment. Debridement. Deep infections that are caught early (within several days of their onset), and those that occur within weeks of the original surgery, may sometimes be cured with a surgical washout of the joint. During this procedure, called debridement, the surgeon removes all contaminated soft tissues. The implant is thoroughly cleaned, and plastic liners or spacers are replaced. After the procedure, intravenous (IV) antibiotics will be prescribed for approximately 6 weeks. Staged surgery. In general, the longer the infection has been present, the harder it is to cure without removing the implant. Late infections (those that occur months to years after the joint replacement surgery) and those infections that have been present for longer periods of time almost always require a staged surgery. The first stage of this treatment includes: Removal of the implant Washout of the joint and soft tissues Placement of an antibiotic spacer Intravenous (IV) antibiotics An antibiotic spacer is a device placed into the joint to maintain normal joint space and alignment. It also provides patient comfort and mobility while the infection is being treated. Prevention- At the time of original joint replacement surgery, there are several measures taken to minimize the risk of infection. Some of the steps have been proven to lower the risk of infection, and some are thought to help but have not been scientifically proven. The most important known measures to lower the risk of infection after total joint replacement include: Antibiotics before and after surgery. Antibiotics are given within one hour of the start of surgery (usually once in the operating room) and continued at intervals for 24 hours following the procedure. Short operating time and minimal operating room traffic. Efficiency in the operation by your surgeon helps to lower the risk of infection by limiting the time the joint is exposed. Limiting the number of operating room personnel entering and leaving the room is thought to the decrease risk of infection. Use of strict sterile technique and sterilization instruments. Care is taken to ensure the operating site is sterile, the instruments have been autoclaved (sterilized) and not exposed to any contamination, and the implants are packaged to ensure their sterility. Preoperative nasal screening for bacterial colonization. There is some evidence that testing for the presence of bacteria (particularly the Staphylococcus species) in the nasal passages several weeks prior to surgery may help prevent joint infection. In institutions where this is performed, those patients that are found to have Staphylococcus in their nasal passages are given an intranasal antibacterial ointment prior to surgery. The type of bacteria that is found in the nasal passages may help your doctors determine which antibiotic you are given at the time of your surgery. Preoperative chlorhexidine wash. There is also evidence that home washing with a chlorhexidine solution (often in the form of soaked cloths) in the days leading up to surgery may help prevent infection. This may be particularly important if patients are known to have certain types of antibiotic-resistant bacteria on their skin or in their nasal passages (see above). Your surgeon will talk with you about this option. Long-term prophylaxis. Surgeons sometimes prescribe antibiotics for patients who have had joint replacements before they undergo dental work. This is done to protect the implants from bacteria that might enter the bloodstream during the dental procedure and cause infection. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons has developed recommendations for when antibiotics should be given before dental work and for which patients would benefit. In general, most people do not require antibiotics before dental procedures. There is little evidence that taking antibiotics before dental procedures is effective at preventing infection. Antibiotics may also be considered before major surgical procedures; however, most patients do not require this.

  • SWETA SINGH 1411 Hrs 39 Min 02 Sec

    SWETA SINGH Sweta singh (jv-i/19/3208) BPT 3rd semester #jvwu #jvmission #CDA. TOPIC:- KNEE LIGAMENT INJURY Knee ligaments are the short bands of tough, flexible connective tissue that hold the knee together. Knee ligament injuries can be caused by trauma, such as a car accident. Or they can be caused by sports injuries. An example is a twisting knee injury in basketball or skiing. The knee has 4 major ligaments. Ligaments connect bones to each other. They give the joint stability and strength. The 4 knee ligaments connect the thighbone (femur) to the shin bone (tibia). They are: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). This ligament is in the center of the knee. It controls rotation and forward movement of the shin bone. Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). This ligament is in the back of the knee. It controls backward movement of the shin bone. Medial collateral ligament (MCL). This ligament gives stability to the inner knee. Lateral collateral ligament (LCL). This ligament gives stability to the outer knee. CAUSES:- Cruciate ligaments The ACL is one of the most common ligaments to be injured. The ACL is often stretched or torn during a sudden twisting motion. This is when the feet stay planted one way, but the knees turn the other way. Slowing down while running or landing from a jump incorrectly can cause ACL injuries. Skiing, basketball, and football are sports that have a higher risk for ACL injuries. The PCL is also a common ligament to become injured in the knee. But a PCL injury often occurs with a sudden, direct hit, such as in a car accident or during a football tackle. Collateral ligaments The MCL is injured more often than the LCL. Stretch and tear injuries to the collateral ligaments are often caused by a blow to the outer side of the knee. This can happen when playing hockey or football. SYMPTOMS:- Cruciate injury A cruciate ligament injury often causes pain. Often you may hear a popping sound when the injury happens. Then your leg buckles when you try to stand on it. The knee also swells. You also arent able to move your knee as you normally would. You may also feel pain along the joint and pain when walking. The symptoms of a cruciate ligament injury may seem like other health conditions. Always see your healthcare provider for a diagnosis. Collateral ligament injury An injury to the collateral ligament also causes the knee to pop and buckle. It also causes pain and swelling. Often you will have pain at the sides of the knee and swelling over the injury site. If it is an MCL injury, the pain is on the inside of the knee. An LCL injury may cause pain on the outside of the knee. The knee will also feel unstable, like it is going to give way. DIAGNOSTIC:- Your healthcare provider will ask about your health history and do a physical exam. You may also need 1 or both of these tests: X-ray. This imaging test can rule out an injury to bone instead of a ligament injury. It uses energy beams to make images of internal tissues, bones, and organs on film. MRI. This test uses large magnets, radio waves, and a computer to make detailed images of organs and structures in the body. It can often find damage or disease in bones and a surrounding ligament, tendon, or muscle. TREATMENT:- Treatment will depend on your symptoms, age, and general health. It will also depend on how severe the condition is. Treatment may include: Pain medicine such as ibuprofen Muscle-strengthening exercises Protective knee brace Ice pack to ease swelling Surgery.

  • KM JAYA KUMARI 1411 Hrs 40 Min 17 Sec

    I am Jaya kumari from bpt3sem Enroll-JV-u/19/3629 #jvwu#university#cda What is physiotherapy?According to WCPT ( world confederation of physical therapists ), physical therapy is concerned with identifying and maximizing the quality of life and movement potential within the spheres of promotion, prevention, treatment, habilitation and rehabilitation. Physical therapy also known as physiotherapy is the health profession concerned with assessment, diagnosis and treatment of the disease and disability through physical means. It provides services to individuals to develop, maintain and restore the maximum movement. Physiotherapy helps in reducing pain, restore mobility and flexibility, increase range of motion of joints, strengthen the muscles and maintain the correct posture of the body. Physiotherapist assesses the patient’s completely. They listen to the problem of the patient patiently. They observe the patients first. They palpate the part. After this examination is done followed by the provisional diagnosis. After this, they plan the treatment. They also make a home exercise regime to strengthen the muscles. They teach the precautions to be followed so that the problem should not be flared up. Physiotherapist gives counselling to the patients. Physiotherapist teaches the transfer activities to bed ridden patients like spinal cord injury patients. They focus on muscle re education and control and rehabilitation of gross and fine motor skills in conditions like spinal cord injury cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, brain injury, and stroke. what is erbs paralysis? Erbs palsy or Erb–Duchenne palsy is a form of obstetric brachial plexus palsy. It occurs when theres an injury to the brachial plexus, specifically the upper brachial plexus at birth. The injury can either stretch, rupture or avulse the roots of the plexus from the spinal cord. It is the most common birth-related brachial plexus injury (50- 60%). It is a lesion of C5 & C6 nerve roots (in some cases C7 is involved as well) usually produced by widening of the head shoulder interval. Injuries to the brachial plexus affects movement and cutaneous sensations in the upper limb. Depending on the severity of the injury, the paralysis can either resolve on its own over a period of months, require rehabilitative therapy or surgery. Neurologically, the Erbs point is a site at the upper trunk of the Brachial Plexus located 2-3cm above the clavicle. Its formed by the union of the C5 and C6 roots which later converge. Affected nerves in Erbs palsy are the axillary nerve, musculocutaneous, & suprascapular nerve. mechanism of injury The most common cause of Erbs palsy is excessive lateral traction or stretching of the babys head and neck in opposite directions during delivery usually associated with shoulder dystocia. This may happen during delivery of the head, the head may be deviated away from the axial plane. There can also be compression of the brachial plexus causing it to stretch and tear. Sometimes, pulling on the infants shoulder during delivery or excessive pressure on the babys raised arm during a breech delivery can cause brachial plexus injury. Two potential forces act on the brachial plexus during labor- natural expulsive force of the uterus, traction force applied by the obstetrician. clinical observation The classical sign of erbs palsy is called Waiters tip deformity. This is due to loss of the lateral rotators of the shoulder, arm flexors, and hand extensor muscles. The position of the limb, under such conditions, is characterized by : the arm hanging by the side and is rotated medially, the forearm extended and pronated and the wrist flexed. Also,there is loss of sensation in the lateral aspect of the forearm. The arm cannot be raised from the side; all power of flexion of the elbow is lost, as is also supination of the forearm. Muscles most often paralyzed are supraspinatus and infraspinatus because the suprascapular nerve is fixed at the suprascapular notch (Erbs point). In more severely affected patients deltoid, biceps, brachialis, and subscapular is affected (C5 and C6). Elbow flexion is weakened because of weakness in biceps & brachialis. If roots are damaged above their junction, paralysis of rhomboids and serratus anterior is added, producing weakness in retraction and protraction of scapula. Diagnosis A thorough history and physical examination with focus on neurologic examination are used to confirm diagnosis. History- aims to gather information about pregnancy complicated either by gestational diabetes or maternal obesity, fetal macrosomia, prolonged second stage labour, shoulder dystocia, use of assitive techniques-forceps to aid delivery. Physical examination- most often shows decreased or absent movement of the affected arm. Neurologic examination- assesses muscle power, sensation,reflexes- moro reflex is absent on the affected arm. Treatment:- During the first 6 months treatment is directed specifically at prevention of fixed deformities. Exercise therapy should be administered daily to maintain ROM and improve muscle strength. Parents must be taught to take an active role in maintaining ROM and keeping the functioning muscles fit. Exercises should include bimanual or bilateral motor planning activities. Home exercises: Encourage parents to carry out specific exercises with their child 2-3 a day in the comfort of their own home - although the exercises can be carried out anywhere appropriate and comfortable. The Home Exercise Programme may focus on the following Maintain movement at the joints – Ensuring that the joints of the affected limb, especially the shoulder, keep their full range of movement and avoid excessive shortening of the muscles, also called a contracture. This will include passive, assisted and active exercises. Increasing the strength of muscles in the affected limb. Increasing the child’s awareness of the arm through tactile touch and contact. Teaching parents, carers and the child how to handle the affected limb and how to position it for both comforts, prevention of complications and practicality. The use of Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (CIMT) and bimanual/bilateral therapy are sometimes also considered by Physiotherapists.

  • KM JAYA KUMARI 1411 Hrs 40 Min 31 Sec

    I am Jaya kumari from bpt3sem Enroll-JV-u/19/3629 #jvwu#university#cda What is physiotherapy?According to WCPT ( world confederation of physical therapists ), physical therapy is concerned with identifying and maximizing the quality of life and movement potential within the spheres of promotion, prevention, treatment, habilitation and rehabilitation. Physical therapy also known as physiotherapy is the health profession concerned with assessment, diagnosis and treatment of the disease and disability through physical means. It provides services to individuals to develop, maintain and restore the maximum movement. Physiotherapy helps in reducing pain, restore mobility and flexibility, increase range of motion of joints, strengthen the muscles and maintain the correct posture of the body. Physiotherapist assesses the patient’s completely. They listen to the problem of the patient patiently. They observe the patients first. They palpate the part. After this examination is done followed by the provisional diagnosis. After this, they plan the treatment. They also make a home exercise regime to strengthen the muscles. They teach the precautions to be followed so that the problem should not be flared up. Physiotherapist gives counselling to the patients. Physiotherapist teaches the transfer activities to bed ridden patients like spinal cord injury patients. They focus on muscle re education and control and rehabilitation of gross and fine motor skills in conditions like spinal cord injury cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, brain injury, and stroke. what is erbs paralysis? Erbs palsy or Erb–Duchenne palsy is a form of obstetric brachial plexus palsy. It occurs when theres an injury to the brachial plexus, specifically the upper brachial plexus at birth. The injury can either stretch, rupture or avulse the roots of the plexus from the spinal cord. It is the most common birth-related brachial plexus injury (50- 60%). It is a lesion of C5 & C6 nerve roots (in some cases C7 is involved as well) usually produced by widening of the head shoulder interval. Injuries to the brachial plexus affects movement and cutaneous sensations in the upper limb. Depending on the severity of the injury, the paralysis can either resolve on its own over a period of months, require rehabilitative therapy or surgery. Neurologically, the Erbs point is a site at the upper trunk of the Brachial Plexus located 2-3cm above the clavicle. Its formed by the union of the C5 and C6 roots which later converge. Affected nerves in Erbs palsy are the axillary nerve, musculocutaneous, & suprascapular nerve. mechanism of injury The most common cause of Erbs palsy is excessive lateral traction or stretching of the babys head and neck in opposite directions during delivery usually associated with shoulder dystocia. This may happen during delivery of the head, the head may be deviated away from the axial plane. There can also be compression of the brachial plexus causing it to stretch and tear. Sometimes, pulling on the infants shoulder during delivery or excessive pressure on the babys raised arm during a breech delivery can cause brachial plexus injury. Two potential forces act on the brachial plexus during labor- natural expulsive force of the uterus, traction force applied by the obstetrician. clinical observation The classical sign of erbs palsy is called Waiters tip deformity. This is due to loss of the lateral rotators of the shoulder, arm flexors, and hand extensor muscles. The position of the limb, under such conditions, is characterized by : the arm hanging by the side and is rotated medially, the forearm extended and pronated and the wrist flexed. Also,there is loss of sensation in the lateral aspect of the forearm. The arm cannot be raised from the side; all power of flexion of the elbow is lost, as is also supination of the forearm. Muscles most often paralyzed are supraspinatus and infraspinatus because the suprascapular nerve is fixed at the suprascapular notch (Erbs point). In more severely affected patients deltoid, biceps, brachialis, and subscapular is affected (C5 and C6). Elbow flexion is weakened because of weakness in biceps & brachialis. If roots are damaged above their junction, paralysis of rhomboids and serratus anterior is added, producing weakness in retraction and protraction of scapula. Diagnosis A thorough history and physical examination with focus on neurologic examination are used to confirm diagnosis. History- aims to gather information about pregnancy complicated either by gestational diabetes or maternal obesity, fetal macrosomia, prolonged second stage labour, shoulder dystocia, use of assitive techniques-forceps to aid delivery. Physical examination- most often shows decreased or absent movement of the affected arm. Neurologic examination- assesses muscle power, sensation,reflexes- moro reflex is absent on the affected arm. Treatment:- During the first 6 months treatment is directed specifically at prevention of fixed deformities. Exercise therapy should be administered daily to maintain ROM and improve muscle strength. Parents must be taught to take an active role in maintaining ROM and keeping the functioning muscles fit. Exercises should include bimanual or bilateral motor planning activities. Home exercises: Encourage parents to carry out specific exercises with their child 2-3 a day in the comfort of their own home - although the exercises can be carried out anywhere appropriate and comfortable. The Home Exercise Programme may focus on the following Maintain movement at the joints – Ensuring that the joints of the affected limb, especially the shoulder, keep their full range of movement and avoid excessive shortening of the muscles, also called a contracture. This will include passive, assisted and active exercises. Increasing the strength of muscles in the affected limb. Increasing the child’s awareness of the arm through tactile touch and contact. Teaching parents, carers and the child how to handle the affected limb and how to position it for both comforts, prevention of complications and practicality. The use of Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (CIMT) and bimanual/bilateral therapy are sometimes also considered by Physiotherapists.

  • NEHA KUMARI 1411 Hrs 42 Min 07 Sec

    Namaste I m JVN neha kumari from BPT 3RD SEM. enroll jv-u/19/3209 #jvwu #JVmission #cda # carpal tunnel syndrome . WHAT IS CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME? Carpal tunnel syndrome, also called median nerve compression, is a condition that causes numbness, tingling, or weakness in your hand. It happens because of pressure on your median nerve, which runs the length of your arm, goes through a passage in your wrist called the carpal tunnel, and ends in your hand. The median controls the movement and feeling of your thumb and the movement of all your fingers except your pinky. SYMPTOMS........... 1 Burning, tingling, or itching numbness in your palm and thumb or your index and middle fingers 2 Weakness in your hand and trouble holding things 3 Shock-like feelings that move into your fingers 4 Tingling that moves up into your arm You might first notice that your fingers "fall asleep" and become numb at night. It usually happens because of how you hold your hand while you sleep. In the morning, you may wake up with numbness and tingling in your hands that may run all the way to your shoulder. During the day, your symptoms might flare up while you’re holding something with your wrist bent, like when you’re driving or reading a book. Early on in the condition, shaking out your hands might help you feel better. But after some time, it may not make the numbness go away. As carpal tunnel syndrome gets worse, you may have less grip strength because the muscles in your hand shrink. You’ll also have more pain and muscle cramping. Your median nerve can’t work the way it should because of the irritation or pressure around it. This leads to: 1Slower nerve impulses 2Less feeling in your fingers 3Less strength and coordination, especially the ability to use your thumb to pinch CAUSES.,... Often, people dont know what brought on their carpal tunnel syndrome. It can be due to: 1 Repetitive motions, like typing, or any wrist movements that you do over and over. This is especially true of things you do when your hands are lower than your wrists. 2 Conditions like hypothyroidism, obesity, rheumatoid arthritis, and diabetes 3 Pregnancy RISK FACTORS........ You might have a higher risk of getting carpal tunnel syndrome if you: 1 Are a woman. Women are three times more likely than men to get it. This might be because they tend to have smaller carpal tunnels. 2 Have a family member with small carpal tunnels 3 Have a job in which you make the same motions with your arm, hand, or wrist over and over, such as an assembly line worker, sewer or knitter, baker, cashier, hairstylist, or musician 4 Fracture or dislocate your wrist DIAGNOSIS AND TEST.......... Your doctor may tap the palm side of your wrist, a test called Tinel sign, or fully flex your wrist with your arms extended. They might also do tests including: 1 Imaging tests. X-rays, ultrasounds, or MRI exams can let your doctor look at your bones and tissues. 2 Electromyogram. Your doctor puts a thin electrode into a muscle to measure its electrical activity. 3 Nerve conduction studies. Your doctor tapes electrodes to your skin to measure the signals in the nerves of your hand and arm. TREATMENT......... Your treatment will depend on your symptoms and how far your condition has progressed. You might need: 1 Lifestyle changes. If repetitive motion is causing your symptoms, take breaks more often or do a bit less of the activity that’s causing you pain. 2 Exercises. Stretching or strengthening moves can make you feel better. Nerve gliding exercises can help the nerve move better within your carpal tunnel. 3 Immobilization. Your doctor may tell you to wear a splint to keep your wrist from moving and to lessen pressure on your nerves. You may wear one at night to help get rid of that numbness or tingling feeling. This can help you sleep better and rest your median nerve. 4 Medication. Your doctor may give you anti-inflammatory drugs or steroid shots to curb swelling. 5 Surgery. If none of those treatments works, you might have an operation called carpal tunnel release that increases the size of the tunnel and eases the pressure on your nerve. PREVENTIONS........ To avoid carpal tunnel syndrome, try to: 1 Keep your wrists straight. 2 Use a splint or brace that helps keep your wrist in a neutral position. 3 Avoid flexing and extending your wrists over and over again. 4 Keep your hands warm. 5 Take breaks whenever you can. 6 Put your hands and wrists in the right position while you work.

  • PRACHI SHARMA 1411 Hrs 55 Min 00 Sec

    I am Prachi sharma from bpt3sem Enroll-JV-u/19/3201#jvwu#university#cda What is physiotherapy?According to WCPT ( world confederation of physical therapists ), physical therapy is concerned with identifying and maximizing the quality of life and movement potential within the spheres of promotion, prevention, treatment, habilitation and rehabilitation. Physical therapy also known as physiotherapy is the health profession concerned with assessment, diagnosis and treatment of the disease and disability through physical means. It provides services to individuals to develop, maintain and restore the maximum movement. Physiotherapy helps in reducing pain, restore mobility and flexibility, increase range of motion of joints, strengthen the muscles and maintain the correct posture of the body. Physiotherapist assesses the patient’s completely. They listen to the problem of the patient patiently. They observe the patients first. They palpate the part. After this examination is done followed by the provisional diagnosis. After this, they plan the treatment. They also make a home exercise regime to strengthen the muscles. They teach the precautions to be followed so that the problem should not be flared up. Physiotherapist gives counselling to the patients. Physiotherapist teaches the transfer activities to bed ridden patients like spinal cord injury patients. They focus on muscle re education and control and rehabilitation of gross and fine motor skills in conditions like spinal cord injury cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, brain injury, and stroke. what is erbs paralysis? Erbs palsy or Erb–Duchenne palsy is a form of obstetric brachial plexus palsy. It occurs when theres an injury to the brachial plexus, specifically the upper brachial plexus at birth. The injury can either stretch, rupture or avulse the roots of the plexus from the spinal cord. It is the most common birth-related brachial plexus injury (50- 60%). It is a lesion of C5 & C6 nerve roots (in some cases C7 is involved as well) usually produced by widening of the head shoulder interval. Injuries to the brachial plexus affects movement and cutaneous sensations in the upper limb. Depending on the severity of the injury, the paralysis can either resolve on its own over a period of months, require rehabilitative therapy or surgery. Neurologically, the Erbs point is a site at the upper trunk of the Brachial Plexus located 2-3cm above the clavicle. Its formed by the union of the C5 and C6 roots which later converge. Affected nerves in Erbs palsy are the axillary nerve, musculocutaneous, & suprascapular nerve. mechanism of injury The most common cause of Erbs palsy is excessive lateral traction or stretching of the babys head and neck in opposite directions during delivery usually associated with shoulder dystocia. This may happen during delivery of the head, the head may be deviated away from the axial plane. There can also be compression of the brachial plexus causing it to stretch and tear. Sometimes, pulling on the infants shoulder during delivery or excessive pressure on the babys raised arm during a breech delivery can cause brachial plexus injury. Two potential forces act on the brachial plexus during labor- natural expulsive force of the uterus, traction force applied by the obstetrician. clinical observation The classical sign of erbs palsy is called Waiters tip deformity. This is due to loss of the lateral rotators of the shoulder, arm flexors, and hand extensor muscles. The position of the limb, under such conditions, is characterized by : the arm hanging by the side and is rotated medially, the forearm extended and pronated and the wrist flexed. Also,there is loss of sensation in the lateral aspect of the forearm. The arm cannot be raised from the side; all power of flexion of the elbow is lost, as is also supination of the forearm. Muscles most often paralyzed are supraspinatus and infraspinatus because the suprascapular nerve is fixed at the suprascapular notch (Erbs point). In more severely affected patients deltoid, biceps, brachialis, and subscapular is affected (C5 and C6). Elbow flexion is weakened because of weakness in biceps & brachialis. If roots are damaged above their junction, paralysis of rhomboids and serratus anterior is added, producing weakness in retraction and protraction of scapula. Diagnosis A thorough history and physical examination with focus on neurologic examination are used to confirm diagnosis. History- aims to gather information about pregnancy complicated either by gestational diabetes or maternal obesity, fetal macrosomia, prolonged second stage labour, shoulder dystocia, use of assitive techniques-forceps to aid delivery. Physical examination- most often shows decreased or absent movement of the affected arm. Neurologic examination- assesses muscle power, sensation,reflexes- moro reflex is absent on the affected arm. Treatment:- During the first 6 months treatment is directed specifically at prevention of fixed deformities. Exercise therapy should be administered daily to maintain ROM and improve muscle strength. Parents must be taught to take an active role in maintaining ROM and keeping the functioning muscles fit. Exercises should include bimanual or bilateral motor planning activities. Home exercises: Encourage parents to carry out specific exercises with their child 2-3 a day in the comfort of their own home - although the exercises can be carried out anywhere appropriate and comfortable. The Home Exercise Programme may focus on the following Maintain movement at the joints – Ensuring that the joints of the affected limb, especially the shoulder, keep their full range of movement and avoid excessive shortening of the muscles, also called a contracture. This will include passive, assisted and active exercises. Increasing the strength of muscles in the affected limb. Increasing the child’s awareness of the arm through tactile touch and contact. Teaching parents, carers and the child how to handle the affected limb and how to position it for both comforts, prevention of complications and practicality. The use of Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (CIMT) and bimanual/bilateral therapy are sometimes also considered by Physiotherapists.

  • SNEHA KUMARI 1411 Hrs 55 Min 49 Sec

    namaste My self sneha kumari from DPT 3rd sem Enroll - jv-d/19/3229 #jvwu #university#cda activity Physiotherapy for Foot Pain Physiotherapy is an effective treatment for foot pain. Foot pain can be a product of injuries, strains, sprains, fractures, arthritis, and other medical conditions. Although pain is a subjective complaint, it is debilitating enough to compromise quality of life, considering they are our primary source of ambulation. Most forms of foot pain are a result of mechanical injury. Causes of Foot Pain: Fractures Tendonitis Sprains Overuse injury Arthritis, gout, autoimmune disease Infections Contusion Bone spurs Physiotherapy Objective: Primary focus of foot pain is to determine cause of symptoms. Once a cause is determined, an action plan for care can be established, as the modalities of intervention vary dramatically from surgery to immobilization. The overarching objective of physiotherapy is to reduced pain and improve functional status once diagnosis is established. Physiotherapy Treatments: Range of motion activity Evaluate for arch support and orthotics Improve gait and posture Splinting Muscle strengthening exercises Diagnosis During the physical exam, your doctor is likely to: Inspect your knee for swelling, pain, tenderness, warmth and visible bruising Check to see how far you can move your lower leg in different directions Push on or pull the joint to evaluate the integrity of the structures in your knee Imaging tests In some cases, your doctor might suggest tests such as: X-ray. Your doctor may first recommend having an X-ray, which can help detect bone fractures and degenerative joint disease. Computerized tomography (CT) scan. CT scanners combine X-rays taken from many different angles, to create cross-sectional images of the inside of your body. CT scans can help diagnose bone problems and subtle fractures. A special kind of CT scan can accurately identify gout even when the joint is not inflamed. Ultrasound. This technology uses sound waves to produce real-time images of the soft tissue structures within and around your knee. Your doctor may want to move your knee into different positions during the ultrasound to check for specific problems. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An MRI uses radio waves and a powerful magnet to create 3D images of the inside of your knee. This test is particularly useful in revealing injuries to soft tissues such as ligaments, tendons, cartilage and muscles. Lab tests If your doctor suspects an infection or inflammation, youre likely to have blood tests and sometimes a procedure called arthrocentesis, in which a small amount of fluid is removed from within your knee joint with a needle and sent to a laboratory for analysis. Treatment Treatments will vary, depending upon what exactly is causing your knee pain. Medications Your doctor may prescribe medications to help relieve pain and to treat underlying conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis or gout. Therapy Strengthening the muscles around your knee will make it more stable. Your doctor may recommend physical therapy or different types of strengthening exercises based on the specific condition that is causing your pain. If you are physically active or practice a sport, you may need exercises to correct movement patterns that may be affecting your knees and to establish good technique during your sport or activity. Exercises to improve your flexibility and balance also are important. Arch supports, sometimes with wedges on one side of the heel, can help to shift pressure away from the side of the knee most affected by osteoarthritis. In certain conditions, different types of braces may be used to help protect and support the knee joint. Injections In some cases, your doctor may suggest injecting medications or other substances directly into your joint. Examples include: Corticosteroids. Injections of a corticosteroid drug into your knee joint may help reduce the symptoms of an arthritis flare and provide pain relief that may last a few months. These injections arent effective in all cases. Hyaluronic acid. A thick fluid, similar to the fluid that naturally lubricates joints, hyaluronic acid can be injected into your knee to improve mobility and ease pain. Although study results have been mixed about the effectiveness of this treatment, relief from one or a series of shots may last as long as six months. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP). PRP contains a concentration of many different growth factors that appear to reduce inflammation and promote healing. These types of injections tend to work better in people whose knee pain is caused by tendon tears, sprains or injury. Surgery If you have an injury that may require surgery, its usually not necessary to have the operation immediately. Before making any decision, consider the pros and cons of both nonsurgical rehabilitation and surgical reconstruction in relation to whats most important to you. If you choose to have surgery, your options may include: Arthroscopic surgery. Depending on your injury, your doctor may be able to examine and repair your joint damage using a fiber-optic camera and long, narrow tools inserted through just a few small incisions around your knee. Arthroscopy may be used to remove loose bodies from your knee joint, remove or repair damaged cartilage (especially if it is causing your knee to lock), and reconstruct torn ligaments. Partial knee replacement surgery. In this procedure, your surgeon replaces only the most damaged portion of your knee with parts made of metal and plastic. The surgery can usually be performed through small incisions, so youre likely to heal more quickly than you are with surgery to replace your entire knee. Total knee replacement. In this procedure, your surgeon cuts away damaged bone and cartilage from your thighbone, shinbone and kneecap, and replaces it with an artificial joint made of metal alloys, high-grade plastics and polymers. THANKS

  • ANCHAL KUMARI 1411 Hrs 59 Min 27 Sec

    Namaste I m JVN Anchal Kumari from DPT 3RD SEM. enroll jv-d/19/3224 #jvwu #JVmission #cda Physiotherapy for Arthritis Physiotherapy is an effective treatment for Arthritis. arthritis is the most common type of joint disease. It occurs due to “wear and tear” – the cartilage in the joints breakdown. Arthritis can happen in any joint but usually occurs in hands, knees, hips and spine. The disease worsens overtime but treatment can help reduce symptoms. Signs and Symptoms: 1. Joint pain 2. Morning stiffness of the joint that resolves within 30 minutes 3. Joint swelling 4. Enlarged joints Causes: 1. Meniscus break down of padding between joints 2. Injury and infection of a joint 3. Genetic and autoimmune causes such rheumatoid arthritis Risk Factors/Who it Impacts 1. Age, – 80% of people with the disease are over age 55. 2. Gender- women are 2-3x more likely than men to develop ARTHRITIS 3. Obesity- additional pressure is put on hips and knees; this causes the cartilage to break down faster. 4. Occupation – job that require frequently putting weight on joints such as knees can affect development (athletes, etc). Diagnosis: 1. Age>45 2. Persistent usage related joint pain in one or few joints 3. Morning stiffness < 30 minutes. 4. Imaging support Objective of Physiotherapy: Overaching goal of physiotherapy is to improve quality of life while also addressing the following factors: 1. Improve pain 2. Improve range of motion and mobility 3. Reduce swelling 4. Prevent fractures and further injuries Common Physiotherapy Treatments: 1. Pain relief modalities 2. Range of motion activities 3. Proprioception 4. Balance and strength training 5. Joint mobilization 6. bracing With the guidance of a trained physiotherapist, arthritis is a disease that can be managed preventatively with the appropriate care and intervention. Arthritis is the swelling and tenderness of one or more of your joints. The main symptoms of arthritis are joint pain and stiffness, which typically worsen with age. The most common types of arthritis are osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Osteoarthritis causes cartilage — the hard, slippery tissue that covers the ends of bones where they form a joint — to break down. Rheumatoid arthritis is a disease in which the immune system attacks the joints, beginning with the lining of joints. Uric acid crystals, which form when theres too much uric acid in your blood, can cause gout. Infections or underlying disease, such as psoriasis or lupus, can cause other types of arthritis. Treatments vary depending on the type of arthritis. The main goals of arthritis treatments are to reduce symptoms and improve quality of life.Risk factors Risk factors for arthritis include: Family history. Some types of arthritis run in families, so you may be more likely to develop arthritis if your parents or siblings have the disorder. Your genes can make you more susceptible to environmental factors that may trigger arthritis. Age. The risk of many types of arthritis — including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and gout — increases with age. Your sex. Women are more likely than men to develop rheumatoid arthritis, while most of the people who have gout, another type of arthritis, are men. Previous joint injury. People who have injured a joint, perhaps while playing a sport, are more likely to eventually develop arthritis in that joint. Obesity. Carrying excess pounds puts stress on joints, particularly your knees, hips and spine. People with obesity have a higher risk of developing arthritis. Complications Severe arthritis, particularly if it affects your hands or arms, can make it difficult for you to do daily tasks. Arthritis of weight-bearing joints can keep you from walking comfortably or sitting up straight. In some cases, joints may become twisted and deformed. THANKS

  • PRIYANKA CHOUDHARY 1412 Hrs 00 Min 24 Sec

    PRIYANKA CHOUDHARY from BPT 3rd sem Enroll(jv-u/19/3447) #jvwu #university#CDA Topic:- "Ankle sprain" Introduction:- What is an ankle sprain? An ankle sprain is an injury to the tough bands of tissue (ligaments) that surround and connect the bones of the leg to the foot. The injury typically happens when you accidentally twist or turn your ankle in an awkward way. This can stretch or tear the ligaments that hold your ankle bones and joints together. All ligaments have a specific range of motion and boundaries that allow them to keep the joints stabilized. When ligaments surrounding the ankle are pushed past these boundaries, it causes a sprain. Sprained ankles most commonly involve injuries to the ligaments on the outside of the ankle. *SYMPTOMS:- You may have a sprained ankle if you notice the following symptoms in the ankle: swelling tenderness bruising pain inability to put weight on the affected ankle skin discoloration stiffness The ankle can sustain many different types of injuries. It’s important to see your doctor when you’re experiencing problems with your ankle. Your doctor can determine whether the injury is a sprain or something more severe. Diagnosis:- How is an ankle sprain diagnosed? Your doctor will perform a physical exam to determine which ligaments have been torn. During the exam, your doctor may move your ankle joint in various ways to check your range of motion. Imaging tests, such as X-rays, may also be ordered to rule out a bone fracture. An MRI may be done if your doctor suspects a fracture, a serious injury to the ligaments, or damage to the surface of the ankle joint. The MRI test uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed images of the body. This allows your doctor to make a proper diagnosis. Treatment:- Home treatments You may be able to treat mild sprains at home. Recommended home care treatments include: using elastic bandages (such as an ACE bandage) to wrap your ankle, but not too tightly wearing a brace to support your ankle using crutches, if needed elevating your foot with pillows as necessary to reduce swelling taking ibuprofen (such as Advil) or acetaminophen (such as Tylenol) to manage pain getting plenty of rest and not putting weight on your ankle. Surgery Surgery for sprained ankles is rare. It may be performed when the damage to the ligaments is severe and there is evidence of instability, or when the injury doesn’t improve with nonsurgical treatment. Surgical options include: Arthroscopy: During an arthroscopy, a surgeon looks inside the joint to see if there are any loose fragments of bone or cartilage. Reconstruction: For reconstruction surgery, a surgeon will repair the torn ligament with stitches. They may also use other ligaments or tendons around the foot or ankle to repair the damaged ligaments. The type of surgery needed will depend on the severity of your ankle sprain and your activity level. After surgery, rehabilitation is an important part of the recovery process.

  • EKTA PRAJAPAT 1412 Hrs 02 Min 41 Sec

    -EKTA PRAJAPAT#BPT-3 SEMESTER#ENROLL-JV-I/19/3364 TOPIC:- KNEE LIGAMENT INJURY Knee ligaments are the short bands of tough, flexible connective tissue that hold the knee together. Knee ligament injuries can be caused by trauma, such as a car accident. Or they can be caused by sports injuries. An example is a twisting knee injury in basketball or skiing. The knee has 4 major ligaments. Ligaments connect bones to each other. They give the joint stability and strength. The 4 knee ligaments connect the thighbone (femur) to the shin bone (tibia). They are: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). This ligament is in the center of the knee. It controls rotation and forward movement of the shin bone. Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). This ligament is in the back of the knee. It controls backward movement of the shin bone. Medial collateral ligament (MCL). This ligament gives stability to the inner knee. Lateral collateral ligament (LCL). This ligament gives stability to the outer knee. CAUSES:- Cruciate ligaments The ACL is one of the most common ligaments to be injured. The ACL is often stretched or torn during a sudden twisting motion. This is when the feet stay planted one way, but the knees turn the other way. Slowing down while running or landing from a jump incorrectly can cause ACL injuries. Skiing, basketball, and football are sports that have a higher risk for ACL injuries. The PCL is also a common ligament to become injured in the knee. But a PCL injury often occurs with a sudden, direct hit, such as in a car accident or during a football tackle. Collateral ligaments The MCL is injured more often than the LCL. Stretch and tear injuries to the collateral ligaments are often caused by a blow to the outer side of the knee. This can happen when playing hockey or football. SYMPTOMS:- Cruciate injury A cruciate ligament injury often causes pain. Often you may hear a popping sound when the injury happens. Then your leg buckles when you try to stand on it. The knee also swells. You also arent able to move your knee as you normally would. You may also feel pain along the joint and pain when walking. The symptoms of a cruciate ligament injury may seem like other health conditions. Always see your healthcare provider for a diagnosis. Collateral ligament injury An injury to the collateral ligament also causes the knee to pop and buckle. It also causes pain and swelling. Often you will have pain at the sides of the knee and swelling over the injury site. If it is an MCL injury, the pain is on the inside of the knee. An LCL injury may cause pain on the outside of the knee. The knee will also feel unstable, like it is going to give way. DIAGNOSTIC:- Your healthcare provider will ask about your health history and do a physical exam. You may also need 1 or both of these tests: X-ray. This imaging test can rule out an injury to bone instead of a ligament injury. It uses energy beams to make images of internal tissues, bones, and organs on film. MRI. This test uses large magnets, radio waves, and a computer to make detailed images of organs and structures in the body. It can often find damage or disease in bones and a surrounding ligament, tendon, or muscle. TREATMENT:- Treatment will depend on your symptoms, age, and general health. It will also depend on how severe the condition is. Treatment may include: Pain medicine such as ibuprofen Muscle-strengthening exercises Protective knee brace Ice pack to ease swelling Surgery.

  • SONAM KUMAWAT 1412 Hrs 02 Min 52 Sec

    Sonam kumawat from BPT 3rd sem Enroll(jv-u/19/3199) #jvwu #university#CDA Topic:- "Ankle sprain" Introduction:- What is an ankle sprain? An ankle sprain is an injury to the tough bands of tissue (ligaments) that surround and connect the bones of the leg to the foot. The injury typically happens when you accidentally twist or turn your ankle in an awkward way. This can stretch or tear the ligaments that hold your ankle bones and joints together. All ligaments have a specific range of motion and boundaries that allow them to keep the joints stabilized. When ligaments surrounding the ankle are pushed past these boundaries, it causes a sprain. Sprained ankles most commonly involve injuries to the ligaments on the outside of the ankle. *SYMPTOMS:- You may have a sprained ankle if you notice the following symptoms in the ankle: swelling tenderness bruising pain inability to put weight on the affected ankle skin discoloration stiffness The ankle can sustain many different types of injuries. It’s important to see your doctor when you’re experiencing problems with your ankle. Your doctor can determine whether the injury is a sprain or something more severe. Diagnosis:- How is an ankle sprain diagnosed? Your doctor will perform a physical exam to determine which ligaments have been torn. During the exam, your doctor may move your ankle joint in various ways to check your range of motion. Imaging tests, such as X-rays, may also be ordered to rule out a bone fracture. An MRI may be done if your doctor suspects a fracture, a serious injury to the ligaments, or damage to the surface of the ankle joint. The MRI test uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed images of the body. This allows your doctor to make a proper diagnosis. Treatment:- Home treatments You may be able to treat mild sprains at home. Recommended home care treatments include: using elastic bandages (such as an ACE bandage) to wrap your ankle, but not too tightly wearing a brace to support your ankle using crutches, if needed elevating your foot with pillows as necessary to reduce swelling taking ibuprofen (such as Advil) or acetaminophen (such as Tylenol) to manage pain getting plenty of rest and not putting weight on your ankle. Surgery Surgery for sprained ankles is rare. It may be performed when the damage to the ligaments is severe and there is evidence of instability, or when the injury doesn’t improve with nonsurgical treatment. Surgical options include: Arthroscopy: During an arthroscopy, a surgeon looks inside the joint to see if there are any loose fragments of bone or cartilage. Reconstruction: For reconstruction surgery, a surgeon will repair the torn ligament with stitches. They may also use other ligaments or tendons around the foot or ankle to repair the damaged ligaments. The type of surgery needed will depend on the severity of your ankle sprain and your activity level. After surgery, rehabilitation is an important part of the recovery process.

  • MS. AYUSHI PAREEK 1412 Hrs 04 Min 24 Sec

    ekta prajapat (jv-i/19/3364) BPT 3rd semester #jvwu #jvmission #CDA. TOPIC:- KNEE LIGAMENT INJURY Knee ligaments are the short bands of tough, flexible connective tissue that hold the knee together. Knee ligament injuries can be caused by trauma, such as a car accident. Or they can be caused by sports injuries. An example is a twisting knee injury in basketball or skiing. The knee has 4 major ligaments. Ligaments connect bones to each other. They give the joint stability and strength. The 4 knee ligaments connect the thighbone (femur) to the shin bone (tibia). They are: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). This ligament is in the center of the knee. It controls rotation and forward movement of the shin bone. Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). This ligament is in the back of the knee. It controls backward movement of the shin bone. Medial collateral ligament (MCL). This ligament gives stability to the inner knee. Lateral collateral ligament (LCL). This ligament gives stability to the outer knee. CAUSES:- Cruciate ligaments The ACL is one of the most common ligaments to be injured. The ACL is often stretched or torn during a sudden twisting motion. This is when the feet stay planted one way, but the knees turn the other way. Slowing down while running or landing from a jump incorrectly can cause ACL injuries. Skiing, basketball, and football are sports that have a higher risk for ACL injuries. The PCL is also a common ligament to become injured in the knee. But a PCL injury often occurs with a sudden, direct hit, such as in a car accident or during a football tackle. Collateral ligaments The MCL is injured more often than the LCL. Stretch and tear injuries to the collateral ligaments are often caused by a blow to the outer side of the knee. This can happen when playing hockey or football. SYMPTOMS:- Cruciate injury A cruciate ligament injury often causes pain. Often you may hear a popping sound when the injury happens. Then your leg buckles when you try to stand on it. The knee also swells. You also arent able to move your knee as you normally would. You may also feel pain along the joint and pain when walking. The symptoms of a cruciate ligament injury may seem like other health conditions. Always see your healthcare provider for a diagnosis. Collateral ligament injury An injury to the collateral ligament also causes the knee to pop and buckle. It also causes pain and swelling. Often you will have pain at the sides of the knee and swelling over the injury site. If it is an MCL injury, the pain is on the inside of the knee. An LCL injury may cause pain on the outside of the knee. The knee will also feel unstable, like it is going to give way. DIAGNOSTIC:- Your healthcare provider will ask about your health history and do a physical exam. You may also need 1 or both of these tests: X-ray. This imaging test can rule out an injury to bone instead of a ligament injury. It uses energy beams to make images of internal tissues, bones, and organs on film. MRI. This test uses large magnets, radio waves, and a computer to make detailed images of organs and structures in the body. It can often find damage or disease in bones and a surrounding ligament, tendon, or muscle. TREATMENT:- Treatment will depend on your symptoms, age, and general health. It will also depend on how severe the condition is. Treatment may include: Pain medicine such as ibuprofen Muscle-strengthening exercises Protective knee brace Ice pack to ease swelling Surgery.

  • MS. AYUSHI PAREEK 1412 Hrs 05 Min 25 Sec

    ekta prajapat (jv-i/19/3364) BPT 3rd semester #jvwu #jvmission #CDA. TOPIC:- KNEE LIGAMENT INJURY Knee ligaments are the short bands of tough, flexible connective tissue that hold the knee together. Knee ligament injuries can be caused by trauma, such as a car accident. Or they can be caused by sports injuries. An example is a twisting knee injury in basketball or skiing. The knee has 4 major ligaments. Ligaments connect bones to each other. They give the joint stability and strength. The 4 knee ligaments connect the thighbone (femur) to the shin bone (tibia). They are: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). This ligament is in the center of the knee. It controls rotation and forward movement of the shin bone. Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). This ligament is in the back of the knee. It controls backward movement of the shin bone. Medial collateral ligament (MCL). This ligament gives stability to the inner knee. Lateral collateral ligament (LCL). This ligament gives stability to the outer knee. CAUSES:- Cruciate ligaments The ACL is one of the most common ligaments to be injured. The ACL is often stretched or torn during a sudden twisting motion. This is when the feet stay planted one way, but the knees turn the other way. Slowing down while running or landing from a jump incorrectly can cause ACL injuries. Skiing, basketball, and football are sports that have a higher risk for ACL injuries. The PCL is also a common ligament to become injured in the knee. But a PCL injury often occurs with a sudden, direct hit, such as in a car accident or during a football tackle. Collateral ligaments The MCL is injured more often than the LCL. Stretch and tear injuries to the collateral ligaments are often caused by a blow to the outer side of the knee. This can happen when playing hockey or football. SYMPTOMS:- Cruciate injury A cruciate ligament injury often causes pain. Often you may hear a popping sound when the injury happens. Then your leg buckles when you try to stand on it. The knee also swells. You also arent able to move your knee as you normally would. You may also feel pain along the joint and pain when walking. The symptoms of a cruciate ligament injury may seem like other health conditions. Always see your healthcare provider for a diagnosis. Collateral ligament injury An injury to the collateral ligament also causes the knee to pop and buckle. It also causes pain and swelling. Often you will have pain at the sides of the knee and swelling over the injury site. If it is an MCL injury, the pain is on the inside of the knee. An LCL injury may cause pain on the outside of the knee. The knee will also feel unstable, like it is going to give way. DIAGNOSTIC:- Your healthcare provider will ask about your health history and do a physical exam. You may also need 1 or both of these tests: X-ray. This imaging test can rule out an injury to bone instead of a ligament injury. It uses energy beams to make images of internal tissues, bones, and organs on film. MRI. This test uses large magnets, radio waves, and a computer to make detailed images of organs and structures in the body. It can often find damage or disease in bones and a surrounding ligament, tendon, or muscle. TREATMENT:- Treatment will depend on your symptoms, age, and general health. It will also depend on how severe the condition is. Treatment may include: Pain medicine such as ibuprofen Muscle-strengthening exercises Protective knee brace Ice pack to ease swelling Surgery.

  • BHAWANA GORAKH 1412 Hrs 06 Min 58 Sec

    Bhawana Gorakh ( JV-U/19/3214) BPT 3 rd semester #JVWU #Universtiy #jv mission #CDA Topic- Vertigo Disease # Introduction- Vertigo is a sensation of feeling off balance. If you have these dizzy spells, you might feel like you are spinning or that the world around you is spinning.# Causes- Vertigo is often caused by an inner ear problem. Some of the most common causes include: BPPV. These initials stand for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. BPPV occurs when tiny calcium particles (canaliths) are dislodged from their normal location and collect in the inner ear. The inner ear sends signals to the brain about head and body movements relative to gravity. It helps you keep your balance. BPPV can occur for no known reason and may be associated with age. Menieres disease. This is an inner ear disorder thought to be caused by a buildup of fluid and changing pressure in the ear. It can cause episodes of vertigo along with ringing in the ears (tinnitus) and hearing loss.# Less often vertigo may be associated with: Head or neck injury Brain problems such as stroke or tumor,Certain medications that cause ear damage,Migraine headaches.#Symptoms of Vertigo Vertigo is often triggered by a change in the position of your head.# People with vertigo typically describe it as feeling like they are:Spinning, Tilting,Swaying,Unbalanced,Pulled to one direction,Other symptoms that may accompany vertigo include:Feeling nauseated,,Vomiting,Abnormal or jerking eye movements (nystagmus),Headache,Sweating,Ringing in the ears or hearing loss.#Treatment for VertigoTreatment for vertigo depends on whats causing it. In many cases, vertigo goes away without any treatment. This is because your brain is able to adapt, at least in part, to the inner ear changes, relying on other mechanisms to maintain balance#Vestibular rehabilitation. This is a type of physical therapy aimed at helping strengthen the vestibular system. The function of the vestibular system is to send signals to the brain about head and body movements relative to gravity.#Medicine. In some cases, medication may be given to relieve symptoms such as nausea or motion sickness associated with vertigo.# If vertigo is caused by an infection or inflammation, antibiotics or steroids may reduce swelling and cure infection. For Menieres disease, diuretics (water pills) may be prescribed to reduce pressure from fluid buildup.# Surgery. In a few cases, surgery may be needed for vertigo.If vertigo is caused by a more serious underlying problem, such as a tumor or injury to the brain or neck, treatment for those problems may help to alleviate the vertigo #

  • MS. AYUSHI PAREEK 1412 Hrs 07 Min 21 Sec

    ayushi pareek(jv-u/19/3202) BPT 3rd semester #jvwu #jvmission #CDA TOPIC:- KNEE LIGAMENT INJURY Knee ligaments are the short bands of tough, flexible connective tissue that hold the knee together. Knee ligament injuries can be caused by trauma, such as a car accident. Or they can be caused by sports injuries. An example is a twisting knee injury in basketball or skiing. The knee has 4 major ligaments. Ligaments connect bones to each other. They give the joint stability and strength. The 4 knee ligaments connect the thighbone (femur) to the shin bone (tibia). They are: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). This ligament is in the center of the knee. It controls rotation and forward movement of the shin bone. Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). This ligament is in the back of the knee. It controls backward movement of the shin bone. Medial collateral ligament (MCL). This ligament gives stability to the inner knee. Lateral collateral ligament (LCL). This ligament gives stability to the outer knee. CAUSES:- Cruciate ligaments The ACL is one of the most common ligaments to be injured. The ACL is often stretched or torn during a sudden twisting motion. This is when the feet stay planted one way, but the knees turn the other way. Slowing down while running or landing from a jump incorrectly can cause ACL injuries. Skiing, basketball, and football are sports that have a higher risk for ACL injuries. The PCL is also a common ligament to become injured in the knee. But a PCL injury often occurs with a sudden, direct hit, such as in a car accident or during a football tackle. Collateral ligaments The MCL is injured more often than the LCL. Stretch and tear injuries to the collateral ligaments are often caused by a blow to the outer side of the knee. This can happen when playing hockey or football. SYMPTOMS:- Cruciate injury A cruciate ligament injury often causes pain. Often you may hear a popping sound when the injury happens. Then your leg buckles when you try to stand on it. The knee also swells. You also arent able to move your knee as you normally would. You may also feel pain along the joint and pain when walking. The symptoms of a cruciate ligament injury may seem like other health conditions. Always see your healthcare provider for a diagnosis. Collateral ligament injury An injury to the collateral ligament also causes the knee to pop and buckle. It also causes pain and swelling. Often you will have pain at the sides of the knee and swelling over the injury site. If it is an MCL injury, the pain is on the inside of the knee. An LCL injury may cause pain on the outside of the knee. The knee will also feel unstable, like it is going to give way. DIAGNOSTIC:- Your healthcare provider will ask about your health history and do a physical exam. You may also need 1 or both of these tests: X-ray. This imaging test can rule out an injury to bone instead of a ligament injury. It uses energy beams to make images of internal tissues, bones, and organs on film. MRI. This test uses large magnets, radio waves, and a computer to make detailed images of organs and structures in the body. It can often find damage or disease in bones and a surrounding ligament, tendon, or muscle. TREATMENT:- Treatment will depend on your symptoms, age, and general health. It will also depend on how severe the condition is. Treatment may include: Pain medicine such as ibuprofen Muscle-strengthening exercises Protective knee brace Ice pack to ease swelling Surgery.

  • VAISHNAVI MISHRA 1412 Hrs 08 Min 23 Sec

    #VAISHNAVI MISHRA (jv-d/19/3223) DPT3rd semester #JVWU #Universtiy #jv mission #CDA #JVWU #Universtiy #jv mission #CDA TOPIC- RESPIRATORY ISSUE Acute respiratory infection is an infection that may interfere with normal breathing. It can affect just your upper respiratory system, which starts at your sinuses and ends at your vocal chords, or just your lower respiratory system, which starts at your vocal chords and ends at your lungs. This infection is particularly dangerous for children, older adults, and people with immune system disorders. SYMPTOM-The symptoms you experience will be different if it’s a lower or upper respiratory infection. Symptoms can include: congestion, either in the nasal sinuses or lungs runny nose cough sore throat body aches fatigue Call your doctor if you experience: a fever over 103˚F (39˚C) and chills difficulty breathing dizziness loss of consciousness CAUSES-here are several different causes of acute respiratory infection. Causes of upper respiratory infection: acute pharyngitis acute ear infection common cold Causes of lower respiratory infection: bronchitis pneumonia bronchiolitis DIAGNOS-In a respiratory exam, the doctor focuses on your breathing. They will check for fluid and inflammation in the lungs by listening for abnormal sounds in your lungs when you breathe. The doctor may peer into your nose and ears, and check your throat. If your doctor believes the infection is in the lower respiratory tract, an X-ray or CT scan may be necessary to check the condition of the lungs. Lung function tests have been useful as diagnostic tools. Pulse oximetry, also known as pulse ox, can check how much oxygen gets into the lungs. A doctor may also take a swab from your nose or mouth, or ask you to cough up a sample of sputum (material coughed up from the lungs) to check for the type of virus or bacteria causing the disease. PREVENTING-Most causes of an acute respiratory infection aren’t treatable. Therefore, prevention is the best method to ward off harmful respiratory infections. Getting the MMR (measles, mumps, and rubella) and pertussis vaccine will substantially lower your risk of getting a respiratory infection. You may also benefit from influenza vaccination and pneumovax. Talk to your doctor about getting these. Practice good hygiene: Wash your hands frequently, especially after you’ve been in a public place. Always sneeze into the arm of your shirt or in a tissue. Although this may not ease your own symptoms, it will prevent you from spreading infectious diseases. Avoid touching your face, especially your eyes and mouth, to prevent introducing germs into your system. You should also avoid smoking and make sure you include plenty of vitamins in your diet, such as vitamin C, which helps boost your immune system. Vitamin C is maintained in immune cells, and a deficiency has been linked to higher susceptibility to infection. While research is unclear if Vitamin C can prevent an acute respiratory infection, there is evidence that it can shorten the length of time and or severity of some infections.

  • VAISHNAVI MISHRA 1412 Hrs 09 Min 00 Sec

    #VAISHNAVI MISHRA (jv-d/19/3223) DPT3rd semester #JVWU #Universtiy #jv mission #CDA #JVWU #Universtiy #jv mission #CDA TOPIC- RESPIRATORY ISSUE Acute respiratory infection is an infection that may interfere with normal breathing. It can affect just your upper respiratory system, which starts at your sinuses and ends at your vocal chords, or just your lower respiratory system, which starts at your vocal chords and ends at your lungs. This infection is particularly dangerous for children, older adults, and people with immune system disorders. SYMPTOM-The symptoms you experience will be different if it’s a lower or upper respiratory infection. Symptoms can include: congestion, either in the nasal sinuses or lungs runny nose cough sore throat body aches fatigue Call your doctor if you experience: a fever over 103˚F (39˚C) and chills difficulty breathing dizziness loss of consciousness CAUSES-here are several different causes of acute respiratory infection. Causes of upper respiratory infection: acute pharyngitis acute ear infection common cold Causes of lower respiratory infection: bronchitis pneumonia bronchiolitis DIAGNOS-In a respiratory exam, the doctor focuses on your breathing. They will check for fluid and inflammation in the lungs by listening for abnormal sounds in your lungs when you breathe. The doctor may peer into your nose and ears, and check your throat. If your doctor believes the infection is in the lower respiratory tract, an X-ray or CT scan may be necessary to check the condition of the lungs. Lung function tests have been useful as diagnostic tools. Pulse oximetry, also known as pulse ox, can check how much oxygen gets into the lungs. A doctor may also take a swab from your nose or mouth, or ask you to cough up a sample of sputum (material coughed up from the lungs) to check for the type of virus or bacteria causing the disease. PREVENTING-Most causes of an acute respiratory infection aren’t treatable. Therefore, prevention is the best method to ward off harmful respiratory infections. Getting the MMR (measles, mumps, and rubella) and pertussis vaccine will substantially lower your risk of getting a respiratory infection. You may also benefit from influenza vaccination and pneumovax. Talk to your doctor about getting these. Practice good hygiene: Wash your hands frequently, especially after you’ve been in a public place. Always sneeze into the arm of your shirt or in a tissue. Although this may not ease your own symptoms, it will prevent you from spreading infectious diseases. Avoid touching your face, especially your eyes and mouth, to prevent introducing germs into your system. You should also avoid smoking and make sure you include plenty of vitamins in your diet, such as vitamin C, which helps boost your immune system. Vitamin C is maintained in immune cells, and a deficiency has been linked to higher susceptibility to infection. While research is unclear if Vitamin C can prevent an acute respiratory infection, there is evidence that it can shorten the length of time and or severity of some infections.

  • MORI URVI  ABHAY SINGH 1412 Hrs 09 Min 18 Sec

    #Urvi Mori(JV-D/19/3232) DPT 03 SEM # JVWU # UNIVERSITY # JV Mission # CDA # Bhawana Gorakh ( JV-U/19/3214) BPT 3 rd semester #JVWU #Universtiy #jv mission #CDA Topic- Vertigo Disease # Introduction- Vertigo is a sensation of feeling off balance. If you have these dizzy spells, you might feel like you are spinning or that the world around you is spinning.# Causes- Vertigo is often caused by an inner ear problem. Some of the most common causes include: BPPV. These initials stand for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. BPPV occurs when tiny calcium particles (canaliths) are dislodged from their normal location and collect in the inner ear. The inner ear sends signals to the brain about head and body movements relative to gravity. It helps you keep your balance. BPPV can occur for no known reason and may be associated with age. Menieres disease. This is an inner ear disorder thought to be caused by a buildup of fluid and changing pressure in the ear. It can cause episodes of vertigo along with ringing in the ears (tinnitus) and hearing loss.# Less often vertigo may be associated with: Head or neck injury Brain problems such as stroke or tumor,Certain medications that cause ear damage,Migraine headaches.#Symptoms of Vertigo Vertigo is often triggered by a change in the position of your head.# People with vertigo typically describe it as feeling like they are:Spinning, Tilting,Swaying,Unbalanced,Pulled to one direction,Other symptoms that may accompany vertigo include:Feeling nauseated,,Vomiting,Abnormal or jerking eye movements (nystagmus),Headache,Sweating,Ringing in the ears or hearing loss.#Treatment for VertigoTreatment for vertigo depends on whats causing it. In many cases, vertigo goes away without any treatment. This is because your brain is able to adapt, at least in part, to the inner ear changes, relying on other mechanisms to maintain balance#Vestibular rehabilitation. This is a type of physical therapy aimed at helping strengthen the vestibular system. The function of the vestibular system is to send signals to the brain about head and body movements relative to gravity.#Medicine. In some cases, medication may be given to relieve symptoms such as nausea or motion sickness associated with vertigo.# If vertigo is caused by an infection or inflammation, antibiotics or steroids may reduce swelling and cure infection. For Menieres disease, diuretics (water pills) may be prescribed to reduce pressure from fluid buildup.# Surgery. In a few cases, surgery may be needed for vertigo.If vertigo is caused by a more serious underlying problem, such as a tumor or injury to the brain or neck, treatment for those problems may help to alleviate the vertigo #

  • AYUSHI GUPTA 1412 Hrs 11 Min 19 Sec

    I am Ayushi Gupta from bpt 3rd sem. Enroll -JV-U/19/3188#jvwu #jvmission #cda #e-physio #physiotheraphyanddiagnostic. topic- JOINT REPLACEMENT. What is joint replacement ? Joint replacement surgery is a procedure that many people undergo to relieve chronic joint pain and improve joint mobility when other non-surgical treatments have proved unsuccessful. If you are dealing with persistent joint pain and a limited range of motion then joint replacement surgery may be worth considering to restore your overall quality of life and get you back to doing the things you enjoy, pain free. Causes of joint replacement- Severe joint pain Stiffness Limping Muscle weakness Limited range of motion Swelling Symptoms Signs and symptoms of an infected joint replacement include: Increased pain or stiffness in a previously well-functioning joint Swelling Warmth and redness around the wound Wound drainage Fevers, chills and night sweats Fatigue Treatment- Nonsurgical Treatment In some cases, just the skin and soft tissues around the joint are infected, and the infection has not spread deep into the artificial joint itself. This is called a "superficial infection." If the infection is caught early, your doctor may prescribe intravenous (IV) or oral antibiotics. This treatment has a good success rate for early superficial infections. Surgical Treatment Infections that go beyond the superficial tissues and gain deep access to the artificial joint almost always require surgical treatment. Debridement. Deep infections that are caught early (within several days of their onset), and those that occur within weeks of the original surgery, may sometimes be cured with a surgical washout of the joint. During this procedure, called debridement, the surgeon removes all contaminated soft tissues. The implant is thoroughly cleaned, and plastic liners or spacers are replaced. After the procedure, intravenous (IV) antibiotics will be prescribed for approximately 6 weeks. Staged surgery. In general, the longer the infection has been present, the harder it is to cure without removing the implant. Late infections (those that occur months to years after the joint replacement surgery) and those infections that have been present for longer periods of time almost always require a staged surgery. The first stage of this treatment includes: Removal of the implant Washout of the joint and soft tissues Placement of an antibiotic spacer Intravenous (IV) antibiotics An antibiotic spacer is a device placed into the joint to maintain normal joint space and alignment. It also provides patient comfort and mobility while the infection is being treated. Prevention- At the time of original joint replacement surgery, there are several measures taken to minimize the risk of infection. Some of the steps have been proven to lower the risk of infection, and some are thought to help but have not been scientifically proven. The most important known measures to lower the risk of infection after total joint replacement include: Antibiotics before and after surgery. Antibiotics are given within one hour of the start of surgery (usually once in the operating room) and continued at intervals for 24 hours following the procedure. Short operating time and minimal operating room traffic. Efficiency in the operation by your surgeon helps to lower the risk of infection by limiting the time the joint is exposed. Limiting the number of operating room personnel entering and leaving the room is thought to the decrease risk of infection. Use of strict sterile technique and sterilization instruments. Care is taken to ensure the operating site is sterile, the instruments have been autoclaved (sterilized) and not exposed to any contamination, and the implants are packaged to ensure their sterility. Preoperative nasal screening for bacterial colonization. There is some evidence that testing for the presence of bacteria (particularly the Staphylococcus species) in the nasal passages several weeks prior to surgery may help prevent joint infection. In institutions where this is performed, those patients that are found to have Staphylococcus in their nasal passages are given an intranasal antibacterial ointment prior to surgery. The type of bacteria that is found in the nasal passages may help your doctors determine which antibiotic you are given at the time of your surgery. Preoperative chlorhexidine wash. There is also evidence that home washing with a chlorhexidine solution (often in the form of soaked cloths) in the days leading up to surgery may help prevent infection. This may be particularly important if patients are known to have certain types of antibiotic-resistant bacteria on their skin or in their nasal passages (see above). Your surgeon will talk with you about this option. Long-term prophylaxis. Surgeons sometimes prescribe antibiotics for patients who have had joint replacements before they undergo dental work. This is done to protect the implants from bacteria that might enter the bloodstream during the dental procedure and cause infection. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons has developed recommendations for when antibiotics should be given before dental work and for which patients would benefit. In general, most people do not require antibiotics before dental procedures. There is little evidence that taking antibiotics before dental procedures is effective at preventing infection. Antibiotics may also be considered before major surgical procedures; however, most patients do not require this.

  • RITIKA JAIN 1412 Hrs 11 Min 41 Sec

    #RITIKAJAIN#BPT-3 Semester(2 year)#Enroll:- jv-u/19/3195#FACULTYOFPHYSIOTHERAPY ANDDIAGNOSTICS#JVMISSIONS#JAYOTIVIDYAPEETHWOMENSUNIVERSITY,JAIPUR INTRODUCTION:- Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis, affecting millions of people worldwide. It occurs when the protective cartilage that cushions the ends of your bones wears down over time. Although osteoarthritis can damage any joint, the disorder most commonly affects joints in your hands, knees, hips and spine. Osteoarthritis symptoms can usually be managed, although the damage to joints cant be reversed. Staying active, maintaining a healthy weight and some treatments might slow progression of the disease and help improve pain and joint function. SYMPTOMS:- Osteoarthritis symptoms often develop slowly and worsen over time. Signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis include: 1.Pain. Affected joints might hurt during or after movement. 2.Stiffness. Joint stiffness might be most noticeable upon awakening or after being inactive. 3.Tenderness. Your joint might feel tender when you apply light pressure to or near it. 4.Loss of flexibility. You might not be able to move your joint through its full range of motion. 5.Grating sensation. You might feel a grating sensation when you use the joint, and you might hear popping or crackling. 6.Bone spurs. These extra bits of bone, which feel like hard lumps, can form around the affected joint. 7.Swelling. This might be caused by soft tissue inflammation around the joint. CAUSES:- -Osteoarthritis occurs when the cartilage that cushions the ends of bones in your joints gradually deteriorates. Cartilage is a firm, slippery tissue that enables nearly frictionless joint motion. Eventually, if the cartilage wears down completely, bone will rub on bone. -Osteoarthritis has often been referred to as a "wear and tear" disease. But besides the breakdown of cartilage, osteoarthritis affects the entire joint. It causes changes in the bone and deterioration of the connective tissues that hold the joint together and attach muscle to bone. It also causes inflammation of the joint lining. DIAGNOSIS:- During the physical exam, your doctor will check your affected joint for tenderness, swelling, redness and flexibility. 1.Imaging tests- To get pictures of the affected joint, your doctor might recommend: -X-rays. Cartilage doesnt show up on X-ray images, but cartilage loss is revealed by a narrowing of the space between the bones in your joint. An X-ray can also show bone spurs around a joint. -Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An MRI uses radio waves and a strong magnetic field to produce detailed images of bone and soft tissues, including cartilage. An MRI isnt commonly needed to diagnose osteoarthritis but can help provide more information in complex cases. 2.Lab tests:- Analyzing your blood or joint fluid can help confirm the diagnosis. -Blood tests. Although theres no blood test for osteoarthritis, certain tests can help rule out other causes of joint pain, such as rheumatoid arthritis. -Joint fluid analysis. Your doctor might use a needle to draw fluid from an affected joint. The fluid is then tested for inflammation and to determine whether your pain is caused by gout or an infection rather than osteoarthritis. TREATMENT:- Osteoarthritis cant be reversed, but treatments can reduce pain and help you move better. 1.Medications Medications that can help relieve osteoarthritis symptoms, primarily pain, include: 2.Acetaminophen. Acetaminophen (Tylenol, others) has been shown to help some people with osteoarthritis who have mild to moderate pain. Taking more than the recommended dose of acetaminophen can cause liver damage. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Over-the-counter NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others) and naproxen sodium (Aleve, others), taken at the recommended doses, typically relieve osteoarthritis pain. Stronger NSAIDs are available by prescription. NSAIDs can cause stomach upset, cardiovascular problems, bleeding problems, and liver and kidney damage. NSAIDs as gels, applied to the skin over the affected joint, have fewer side effects and may relieve pain just as well. 3.Duloxetine (Cymbalta). Normally used as an antidepressant, this medication is also approved to treat chronic pain, including osteoarthritis pain. 2.THERAPY:- 1.Physical therapy. A physical therapist can show you exercises to strengthen the muscles around your joint, increase your flexibility and reduce pain. Regular gentle exercise that you do on your own, such as swimming or walking, can be equally effective. Occupational therapy. An occupational therapist can help you discover ways to do everyday tasks without putting extra stress on your already painful joint. For instance, a toothbrush with a large grip could make brushing your teeth easier if you have osteoarthritis in your hands. A bench in your shower could help relieve the pain of standing if you have knee osteoarthritis. 2.Surgical and other procedures:- 1.Knee osteotomy If conservative treatments dont help, you may want to consider procedures such as: 2.Cortisone injections. Injections of corticosteroid medications may relieve pain in your joint. During this procedure your doctor numbs the area around your joint, then places a needle into the space within your joint and injects medication. The number of cortisone injections you can receive each year is generally limited to three or four injections, because the medication can worsen joint damage over time. -Lubrication injections. Injections of hyaluronic acid may offer pain relief by providing some cushioning in your knee, though some research suggests these injections offer no more relief than a placebo. -Hyaluronic acid is similar to a component normally found in your joint fluid. -Realigning bones. If osteoarthritis has damaged one side of your knee more than the other, an osteotomy might be helpful. In a knee osteotomy, a surgeon cuts across the bone either above or below the knee, and then removes or adds a wedge of bone. This shifts your body weight away from the worn-out part of your knee. Joint replacement. In joint replacement surgery (arthroplasty), your surgeon removes your damaged joint surfaces and replaces them with plastic and metal parts. Surgical risks include infections and blood clots. Artificial joints can wear out or come loose and may need to eventually be replaced.

  • MINAL SHARMA 1412 Hrs 13 Min 09 Sec

    #MINAL SHARMA#BPT-3 Semester(2 year)#Enroll:- jv-u/19/3197#FACULTYOFPHYSIOTHERAPY ANDDIAGNOSTICS#JVMISSIONS#JAYOTIVIDYAPEETHWOMENSUNIVERSITY,JAIPUR#TOPIC:-OSTEOARTHRITIS INTRODUCTION:- Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis, affecting millions of people worldwide. It occurs when the protective cartilage that cushions the ends of your bones wears down over time. Although osteoarthritis can damage any joint, the disorder most commonly affects joints in your hands, knees, hips and spine. Osteoarthritis symptoms can usually be managed, although the damage to joints cant be reversed. Staying active, maintaining a healthy weight and some treatments might slow progression of the disease and help improve pain and joint function. SYMPTOMS:- Osteoarthritis symptoms often develop slowly and worsen over time. Signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis include: 1.Pain. Affected joints might hurt during or after movement. 2.Stiffness. Joint stiffness might be most noticeable upon awakening or after being inactive. 3.Tenderness. Your joint might feel tender when you apply light pressure to or near it. 4.Loss of flexibility. You might not be able to move your joint through its full range of motion. 5.Grating sensation. You might feel a grating sensation when you use the joint, and you might hear popping or crackling. 6.Bone spurs. These extra bits of bone, which feel like hard lumps, can form around the affected joint. 7.Swelling. This might be caused by soft tissue inflammation around the joint. CAUSES:- -Osteoarthritis occurs when the cartilage that cushions the ends of bones in your joints gradually deteriorates. Cartilage is a firm, slippery tissue that enables nearly frictionless joint motion. Eventually, if the cartilage wears down completely, bone will rub on bone. -Osteoarthritis has often been referred to as a "wear and tear" disease. But besides the breakdown of cartilage, osteoarthritis affects the entire joint. It causes changes in the bone and deterioration of the connective tissues that hold the joint together and attach muscle to bone. It also causes inflammation of the joint lining. DIAGNOSIS:- During the physical exam, your doctor will check your affected joint for tenderness, swelling, redness and flexibility. 1.Imaging tests- To get pictures of the affected joint, your doctor might recommend: -X-rays. Cartilage doesnt show up on X-ray images, but cartilage loss is revealed by a narrowing of the space between the bones in your joint. An X-ray can also show bone spurs around a joint. -Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An MRI uses radio waves and a strong magnetic field to produce detailed images of bone and soft tissues, including cartilage. An MRI isnt commonly needed to diagnose osteoarthritis but can help provide more information in complex cases. 2.Lab tests:- Analyzing your blood or joint fluid can help confirm the diagnosis. -Blood tests. Although theres no blood test for osteoarthritis, certain tests can help rule out other causes of joint pain, such as rheumatoid arthritis. -Joint fluid analysis. Your doctor might use a needle to draw fluid from an affected joint. The fluid is then tested for inflammation and to determine whether your pain is caused by gout or an infection rather than osteoarthritis. TREATMENT:- Osteoarthritis cant be reversed, but treatments can reduce pain and help you move better. 1.Medications Medications that can help relieve osteoarthritis symptoms, primarily pain, include: 2.Acetaminophen. Acetaminophen (Tylenol, others) has been shown to help some people with osteoarthritis who have mild to moderate pain. Taking more than the recommended dose of acetaminophen can cause liver damage. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Over-the-counter NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others) and naproxen sodium (Aleve, others), taken at the recommended doses, typically relieve osteoarthritis pain. Stronger NSAIDs are available by prescription. NSAIDs can cause stomach upset, cardiovascular problems, bleeding problems, and liver and kidney damage. NSAIDs as gels, applied to the skin over the affected joint, have fewer side effects and may relieve pain just as well. 3.Duloxetine (Cymbalta). Normally used as an antidepressant, this medication is also approved to treat chronic pain, including osteoarthritis pain. 2.THERAPY:- 1.Physical therapy. A physical therapist can show you exercises to strengthen the muscles around your joint, increase your flexibility and reduce pain. Regular gentle exercise that you do on your own, such as swimming or walking, can be equally effective. Occupational therapy. An occupational therapist can help you discover ways to do everyday tasks without putting extra stress on your already painful joint. For instance, a toothbrush with a large grip could make brushing your teeth easier if you have osteoarthritis in your hands. A bench in your shower could help relieve the pain of standing if you have knee osteoarthritis. 2.Surgical and other procedures:- 1.Knee osteotomy If conservative treatments dont help, you may want to consider procedures such as: 2.Cortisone injections. Injections of corticosteroid medications may relieve pain in your joint. During this procedure your doctor numbs the area around your joint, then places a needle into the space within your joint and injects medication. The number of cortisone injections you can receive each year is generally limited to three or four injections, because the medication can worsen joint damage over time. -Lubrication injections. Injections of hyaluronic acid may offer pain relief by providing some cushioning in your knee, though some research suggests these injections offer no more relief than a placebo. -Hyaluronic acid is similar to a component normally found in your joint fluid. -Realigning bones. If osteoarthritis has damaged one side of your knee more than the other, an osteotomy might be helpful. In a knee osteotomy, a surgeon cuts across the bone either above or below the knee, and then removes or adds a wedge of bone. This shifts your body weight away from the worn-out part of your knee. Joint replacement. In joint replacement surgery (arthroplasty), your surgeon removes your damaged joint surfaces and replaces them with plastic and metal parts. Surgical risks include infections and blood clots. Artificial joints can wear out or come loose and may need to eventually be replaced.

  • EKTA JAIN 1412 Hrs 14 Min 15 Sec

    Namaste I m JVN Ekta Jain from BPT 3RD SEM. enroll jv-u/19/3200 #jvwu #JVmission #cda # carpal tunnel syndrome . WHAT IS CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME? Carpal tunnel syndrome, also called median nerve compression, is a condition that causes numbness, tingling, or weakness in your hand. It happens because of pressure on your median nerve, which runs the length of your arm, goes through a passage in your wrist called the carpal tunnel, and ends in your hand. The median controls the movement and feeling of your thumb and the movement of all your fingers except your pinky. SYMPTOMS........... 1 Burning, tingling, or itching numbness in your palm and thumb or your index and middle fingers 2 Weakness in your hand and trouble holding things 3 Shock-like feelings that move into your fingers 4 Tingling that moves up into your arm You might first notice that your fingers "fall asleep" and become numb at night. It usually happens because of how you hold your hand while you sleep. In the morning, you may wake up with numbness and tingling in your hands that may run all the way to your shoulder. During the day, your symptoms might flare up while you’re holding something with your wrist bent, like when you’re driving or reading a book. Early on in the condition, shaking out your hands might help you feel better. But after some time, it may not make the numbness go away. As carpal tunnel syndrome gets worse, you may have less grip strength because the muscles in your hand shrink. You’ll also have more pain and muscle cramping. Your median nerve can’t work the way it should because of the irritation or pressure around it. This leads to: 1Slower nerve impulses 2Less feeling in your fingers 3Less strength and coordination, especially the ability to use your thumb to pinch CAUSES.,... Often, people dont know what brought on their carpal tunnel syndrome. It can be due to: 1 Repetitive motions, like typing, or any wrist movements that you do over and over. This is especially true of things you do when your hands are lower than your wrists. 2 Conditions like hypothyroidism, obesity, rheumatoid arthritis, and diabetes 3 Pregnancy RISK FACTORS........ You might have a higher risk of getting carpal tunnel syndrome if you: 1 Are a woman. Women are three times more likely than men to get it. This might be because they tend to have smaller carpal tunnels. 2 Have a family member with small carpal tunnels 3 Have a job in which you make the same motions with your arm, hand, or wrist over and over, such as an assembly line worker, sewer or knitter, baker, cashier, hairstylist, or musician 4 Fracture or dislocate your wrist DIAGNOSIS AND TEST.......... Your doctor may tap the palm side of your wrist, a test called Tinel sign, or fully flex your wrist with your arms extended. They might also do tests including: 1 Imaging tests. X-rays, ultrasounds, or MRI exams can let your doctor look at your bones and tissues. 2 Electromyogram. Your doctor puts a thin electrode into a muscle to measure its electrical activity. 3 Nerve conduction studies. Your doctor tapes electrodes to your skin to measure the signals in the nerves of your hand and arm. TREATMENT......... Your treatment will depend on your symptoms and how far your condition has progressed. You might need: 1 Lifestyle changes. If repetitive motion is causing your symptoms, take breaks more often or do a bit less of the activity that’s causing you pain. 2 Exercises. Stretching or strengthening moves can make you feel better. Nerve gliding exercises can help the nerve move better within your carpal tunnel. 3 Immobilization. Your doctor may tell you to wear a splint to keep your wrist from moving and to lessen pressure on your nerves. You may wear one at night to help get rid of that numbness or tingling feeling. This can help you sleep better and rest your median nerve. 4 Medication. Your doctor may give you anti-inflammatory drugs or steroid shots to curb swelling. 5 Surgery. If none of those treatments works, you might have an operation called carpal tunnel release that increases the size of the tunnel and eases the pressure on your nerve. PREVENTIONS........ To avoid carpal tunnel syndrome, try to: 1 Keep your wrists straight. 2 Use a splint or brace that helps keep your wrist in a neutral position. 3 Avoid flexing and extending your wrists over and over again. 4 Keep your hands warm. 5 Take breaks whenever you can. 6 Put your hands and wrists in the right position while you work.

  • SNEHA KUMARI 1412 Hrs 14 Min 51 Sec

    My self sneha kumari from DPT 3rd sem Enroll - jv-d/19/3229 #jvwu #university#cda activity Physiotherapy for Foot Pain Physiotherapy is an effective treatment for foot pain. Foot pain can be a product of injuries, strains, sprains, fractures, arthritis, and other medical conditions. Although pain is a subjective complaint, it is debilitating enough to compromise quality of life, considering they are our primary source of ambulation. Most forms of foot pain are a result of mechanical injury. Causes of Foot Pain: Fractures Tendonitis Sprains Overuse injury Arthritis, gout, autoimmune disease Infections Contusion Bone spurs Physiotherapy Objective: Primary focus of foot pain is to determine cause of symptoms. Once a cause is determined, an action plan for care can be established, as the modalities of intervention vary dramatically from surgery to immobilization. The overarching objective of physiotherapy is to reduced pain and improve functional status once diagnosis is established. Physiotherapy Treatments: Range of motion activity Evaluate for arch support and orthotics Improve gait and posture Splinting Muscle strengthening exercises THANKS

  • MANSI JOSHI 1412 Hrs 15 Min 26 Sec

    Namaste I m JVN Mansi Joshi from BPT 3RD SEM. enroll jv-u/19/3192 #jvwu #JVmission #cda # carpal tunnel syndrome . WHAT IS CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME? Carpal tunnel syndrome, also called median nerve compression, is a condition that causes numbness, tingling, or weakness in your hand. It happens because of pressure on your median nerve, which runs the length of your arm, goes through a passage in your wrist called the carpal tunnel, and ends in your hand. The median controls the movement and feeling of your thumb and the movement of all your fingers except your pinky. SYMPTOMS........... 1 Burning, tingling, or itching numbness in your palm and thumb or your index and middle fingers 2 Weakness in your hand and trouble holding things 3 Shock-like feelings that move into your fingers 4 Tingling that moves up into your arm You might first notice that your fingers "fall asleep" and become numb at night. It usually happens because of how you hold your hand while you sleep. In the morning, you may wake up with numbness and tingling in your hands that may run all the way to your shoulder. During the day, your symptoms might flare up while you’re holding something with your wrist bent, like when you’re driving or reading a book. Early on in the condition, shaking out your hands might help you feel better. But after some time, it may not make the numbness go away. As carpal tunnel syndrome gets worse, you may have less grip strength because the muscles in your hand shrink. You’ll also have more pain and muscle cramping. Your median nerve can’t work the way it should because of the irritation or pressure around it. This leads to: 1Slower nerve impulses 2Less feeling in your fingers 3Less strength and coordination, especially the ability to use your thumb to pinch CAUSES.,... Often, people dont know what brought on their carpal tunnel syndrome. It can be due to: 1 Repetitive motions, like typing, or any wrist movements that you do over and over. This is especially true of things you do when your hands are lower than your wrists. 2 Conditions like hypothyroidism, obesity, rheumatoid arthritis, and diabetes 3 Pregnancy RISK FACTORS........ You might have a higher risk of getting carpal tunnel syndrome if you: 1 Are a woman. Women are three times more likely than men to get it. This might be because they tend to have smaller carpal tunnels. 2 Have a family member with small carpal tunnels 3 Have a job in which you make the same motions with your arm, hand, or wrist over and over, such as an assembly line worker, sewer or knitter, baker, cashier, hairstylist, or musician 4 Fracture or dislocate your wrist DIAGNOSIS AND TEST.......... Your doctor may tap the palm side of your wrist, a test called Tinel sign, or fully flex your wrist with your arms extended. They might also do tests including: 1 Imaging tests. X-rays, ultrasounds, or MRI exams can let your doctor look at your bones and tissues. 2 Electromyogram. Your doctor puts a thin electrode into a muscle to measure its electrical activity. 3 Nerve conduction studies. Your doctor tapes electrodes to your skin to measure the signals in the nerves of your hand and arm. TREATMENT......... Your treatment will depend on your symptoms and how far your condition has progressed. You might need: 1 Lifestyle changes. If repetitive motion is causing your symptoms, take breaks more often or do a bit less of the activity that’s causing you pain. 2 Exercises. Stretching or strengthening moves can make you feel better. Nerve gliding exercises can help the nerve move better within your carpal tunnel. 3 Immobilization. Your doctor may tell you to wear a splint to keep your wrist from moving and to lessen pressure on your nerves. You may wear one at night to help get rid of that numbness or tingling feeling. This can help you sleep better and rest your median nerve. 4 Medication. Your doctor may give you anti-inflammatory drugs or steroid shots to curb swelling. 5 Surgery. If none of those treatments works, you might have an operation called carpal tunnel release that increases the size of the tunnel and eases the pressure on your nerve. PREVENTIONS........ To avoid carpal tunnel syndrome, try to: 1 Keep your wrists straight. 2 Use a splint or brace that helps keep your wrist in a neutral position. 3 Avoid flexing and extending your wrists over and over again. 4 Keep your hands warm. 5 Take breaks whenever you can. 6 Put your hands and wrists in the right position while you work.

  • SONAM KUMAWAT 1412 Hrs 16 Min 59 Sec

    SONAM KUMAWAT

  • NIHARIKA CHOUDAHRY 1412 Hrs 25 Min 20 Sec

    I am niharika choudhary from bpt3sem Enroll-JV-u/19/3608#jvwu#university#cda What is physiotherapy? Physiotherapy helps restore movement and function when someone is affected by injury, illness or disability. Physiotherapists help people affected by injury, illness or disability through movement and exercise, manual therapy, education and advice. They maintain health for people of all ages, helping patients to manage pain and prevent disease. The profession helps to encourage development and facilitate recovery, enabling people to stay in work while helping them remain independent for as long as possible. Thumbnail Physio checking knee joint flexibility What physiotherapists do Read the evidence Our Physiotherapy Works briefings demonstrate the effectiveness of physiotherapy in treating a wide range of conditions Physiotherapy is a science-based profession and takes a ‘whole person’ approach to health and wellbeing, which includes the patient’s general lifestyle. At the core is the patient’s involvement in their own care, through education, awareness, empowerment and participation in their treatment. You can benefit from physiotherapy at any time in your life. Physiotherapy helps with back pain or sudden injury, managing long-term medical condition such as asthma, and in preparing for childbirth or a sporting event. What is physiotherapy? Physiotherapy helps restore movement and function when someone is affected by injury, illness or disability. SHARE Find a physiotherapist Physiotherapists help people affected by injury, illness or disability through movement and exercise, manual therapy, education and advice. They maintain health for people of all ages, helping patients to manage pain and prevent disease. The profession helps to encourage development and facilitate recovery, enabling people to stay in work while helping them remain independent for as long as possible. Thumbnail Physio checking knee joint flexibility What physiotherapists do Read the evidence Our Physiotherapy Works briefings demonstrate the effectiveness of physiotherapy in treating a wide range of conditions Physiotherapy is a science-based profession and takes a ‘whole person’ approach to health and wellbeing, which includes the patient’s general lifestyle. At the core is the patient’s involvement in their own care, through education, awareness, empowerment and participation in their treatment. You can benefit from physiotherapy at any time in your life. Physiotherapy helps with back pain or sudden injury, managing long-term medical condition such as asthma, and in preparing for childbirth or a sporting event. Thumbnail Physio checking fitness level of patient on a treadmill Why physiotherapy? Physiotherapy is a degree-based healthcare profession. Physios use their knowledge and skills to improve a range of conditions associated with different systems of the body, such as: Neurological (stroke, multiple sclerosis, Parkinsons) Neuromusculoskeletal (back pain, whiplash associated disorder, sports injuries, arthritis) Cardiovascular (chronic heart disease, rehabilitation after heart attack) Respiratory (asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis). Physiotherapists work in a variety of specialisms in health and social care. Additionally, some physiotherapists are involved in education, research and service management.

  • TRIPTI SHARMA 1412 Hrs 34 Min 14 Sec

    #Tripti Sharma (jv-d/18/2698) DPT5th semester #JVWU #Universtiy #jv mission #CDA #Nahida Parveen (jv-u/18/2219)DPT5th semester #JVWU #Universtiy #jv mission #CDA Topic- Osteoporosis Osteoporosis is a bone disease that occurs when the body loses too much bone, makes too little bone, or both. As a result, bones become weak and may break from a fall or, in serious cases, from sneezing or minor bumps. Symptoms There typically are no symptoms in the early stages of bone loss. But once your bones have been weakened by osteoporosis, you might have signs and symptoms that include: 1) Back pain, caused by a fractured or collapsed vertebra 2) Loss of height over time 3) A stooped posture 4) A bone that breaks much more easily than expected Cause:- Your bones are in a constant state of renewal — new bone is made and old bone is broken down. When youre young, your body makes new bone faster than it breaks down old bone and your bone mass increases. After the early 20s this process slows, and most people reach their peak bone mass by age 30. As people age, bone mass is lost faster than its created. How likely you are to develop osteoporosis depends partly on how much bone mass you attained in your youth. Peak bone mass is somewhat inherited and varies also by ethnic group. The higher your peak bone mass, the more bone you have "in the bank" and the less likely you are to develop osteoporosis as you age. Risk factors:- Your sex Age Race Family History Body Frame size * Hormone levels * Dietary factors Complications:- Bone fractures, particularly in the spine or hip, are the most serious complications of osteoporosis. Hip fractures often are caused by a fall and can result in disability and even an increased risk of death within the first year after the injury. In some cases, spinal fractures can occur even if you havent fallen. The bones that make up your spine (vertebrae) can weaken to the point of crumpling, which can result in back pain, lost height and a hunched forward posture. Treatment:- Medication:-Alendronate (Fosamax), a weekly pill. Risedronate (Actonel), a weekly or monthly pill. Ibandronate (Boniva), a monthly pill or quarterly intravenous (IV) infusion. Zoledronic acid (Reclast), an annual IV infusion. Physiotherapy management Exercise:- Exercise can help you build strong bones and slow bone loss. Exercise will benefit your bones no matter when you start, but youll gain the most benefits if you start exercising regularly when youre young and continue to exercise throughout your life. Combine strength training exercises with weight-bearing and balance exercises. Strength training helps strengthen muscles and bones in your arms and upper spine. Weight-bearing exercises — such as walking, jogging, running, stair climbing, skipping rope, skiing and impact-producing sports — affect mainly the bones in your legs, hips and lower spine. Balance exercises such as tai chi can reduce your risk of falling especially as you get older. Swimming, cycling and exercising on machines such as elliptical trainers can provide a good cardiovascular workout, but they dont improve bone health

  • NAHIDA PARVEEN 1412 Hrs 37 Min 17 Sec

    #Nahida Parveen (jv-u/18/2219)DPT5th semester #JVWU #Universtiy #jv mission #CDA #Tripti Sharma (jv-d/18/2698) DPT5th semester #JVWU #Universtiy #jv mission #CDA Topic- Osteoporosis Osteoporosis is a bone disease that occurs when the body loses too much bone, makes too little bone, or both. As a result, bones become weak and may break from a fall or, in serious cases, from sneezing or minor bumps. Symptoms There typically are no symptoms in the early stages of bone loss. But once your bones have been weakened by osteoporosis, you might have signs and symptoms that include: 1) Back pain, caused by a fractured or collapsed vertebra 2) Loss of height over time 3) A stooped posture 4) A bone that breaks much more easily than expected Cause:- Your bones are in a constant state of renewal — new bone is made and old bone is broken down. When youre young, your body makes new bone faster than it breaks down old bone and your bone mass increases. After the early 20s this process slows, and most people reach their peak bone mass by age 30. As people age, bone mass is lost faster than its created. How likely you are to develop osteoporosis depends partly on how much bone mass you attained in your youth. Peak bone mass is somewhat inherited and varies also by ethnic group. The higher your peak bone mass, the more bone you have "in the bank" and the less likely you are to develop osteoporosis as you age. Risk factors:- Your sex Age Race Family History Body Frame size * Hormone levels * Dietary factors Complications:- Bone fractures, particularly in the spine or hip, are the most serious complications of osteoporosis. Hip fractures often are caused by a fall and can result in disability and even an increased risk of death within the first year after the injury. In some cases, spinal fractures can occur even if you havent fallen. The bones that make up your spine (vertebrae) can weaken to the point of crumpling, which can result in back pain, lost height and a hunched forward posture. Treatment:- Medication:-Alendronate (Fosamax), a weekly pill. Risedronate (Actonel), a weekly or monthly pill. Ibandronate (Boniva), a monthly pill or quarterly intravenous (IV) infusion. Zoledronic acid (Reclast), an annual IV infusion. Physiotherapy management Exercise:- Exercise can help you build strong bones and slow bone loss. Exercise will benefit your bones no matter when you start, but youll gain the most benefits if you start exercising regularly when youre young and continue to exercise throughout your life. Combine strength training exercises with weight-bearing and balance exercises. Strength training helps strengthen muscles and bones in your arms and upper spine. Weight-bearing exercises — such as walking, jogging, running, stair climbing, skipping rope, skiing and impact-producing sports — affect mainly the bones in your legs, hips and lower spine. Balance exercises such as tai chi can reduce your risk of falling especially as you get older. Swimming, cycling and exercising on machines such as elliptical trainers can provide a good cardiovascular workout, but they dont improve bone health

  • HARSHITA CHHIPA 2653 Hrs 16 Min 44 Sec

    Im harshita chhipa from bpt3sem Enroll-JV-I/19/3340#jvwu#university#cda What is physiotherapy? Physiotherapy helps restore movement and function when someone is affected by injury, illness or disability. Physiotherapists help people affected by injury, illness or disability through movement and exercise, manual therapy, education and advice. They maintain health for people of all ages, helping patients to manage pain and prevent disease. The profession helps to encourage development and facilitate recovery, enabling people to stay in work while helping them remain independent for as long as possible. Thumbnail Physio checking knee joint flexibility What physiotherapists do Read the evidence Our Physiotherapy Works briefings demonstrate the effectiveness of physiotherapy in treating a wide range of conditions Physiotherapy is a science-based profession and takes a ‘whole person’ approach to health and wellbeing, which includes the patient’s general lifestyle. At the core is the patient’s involvement in their own care, through education, awareness, empowerment and participation in their treatment. You can benefit from physiotherapy at any time in your life. Physiotherapy helps with back pain or sudden injury, managing long-term medical condition such as asthma, and in preparing for childbirth or a sporting event. What is physiotherapy? Physiotherapy helps restore movement and function when someone is affected by injury, illness or disability. SHARE Find a physiotherapist Physiotherapists help people affected by injury, illness or disability through movement and exercise, manual therapy, education and advice. They maintain health for people of all ages, helping patients to manage pain and prevent disease. The profession helps to encourage development and facilitate recovery, enabling people to stay in work while helping them remain independent for as long as possible. Thumbnail Physio checking knee joint flexibility What physiotherapists do Read the evidence Our Physiotherapy Works briefings demonstrate the effectiveness of physiotherapy in treating a wide range of conditions Physiotherapy is a science-based profession and takes a ‘whole person’ approach to health and wellbeing, which includes the patient’s general lifestyle. At the core is the patient’s involvement in their own care, through education, awareness, empowerment and participation in their treatment. You can benefit from physiotherapy at any time in your life. Physiotherapy helps with back pain or sudden injury, managing long-term medical condition such as asthma, and in preparing for childbirth or a sporting event. Thumbnail Physio checking fitness level of patient on a treadmill Why physiotherapy? Physiotherapy is a degree-based healthcare profession. Physios use their knowledge and skills to improve a range of conditions associated with different systems of the body, such as: Neurological (stroke, multiple sclerosis, Parkinsons) Neuromusculoskeletal (back pain, whiplash associated disorder, sports injuries, arthritis) Cardiovascular (chronic heart disease, rehabilitation after heart attack) Respiratory (asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis). Physiotherapists work in a variety of specialisms in health and social care. Additionally, some physiotherapists are involved in education, research and service management.